(what is means and what has been done in the name of it)
Islamic term, Arabic for 'battle; struggle; holy war for the religion'.
Jihad has two possible definitions: the greater, which is the spiritual struggle of
each man, against vice, passion and ignorance. This understanding of jihad has been presented by
apologetics of modern times, but is an understanding of the term rarely used by Muslims themselves.
The lesser jihad is simplified to cover holy war against infidels and infidel
countries, aiming at spreading Islam. This kind of jihad is described in both the Koran and in the hadiths.
from the "Encyclopedia of the Orient, 2006
JIHAD means the strugle between good and evil.helping someone cross the road is
jihad.a word of good advice is jihad (which i am doing right now). if someone is lost and you give them
the right directions ,that is jihad.if you are helping someone be good even that is
now what if someone broke into your house and tried to kill you and your family? what would you
1.would you let your family or yourself be killed or molested?
2. would you defend yourself and your family?
||jihad - a holy war waged by Muslims against
||Synonyms: jehad, international jihad
||jihad - a holy struggle or striving by a
Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
By Wordnet Dictionary
VERSES SUPPORTING JIHAD IN THE KORAN
Translation used: M. H. Shakir, published by Tahrike
Tarsile Qur'an, Inc., 1983, unless otherwise indicated.
[2.178] O you who believe! retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the slain, the free for the free, and the slave
for the slave, and the female for the female, but if any remission is made to any one by his (aggrieved)
brother, then prosecution (for the bloodwit) should be made according to usage, and payment should be made to
him in a good manner; this is an alleviation from your Lord and a mercy; so whoever exceeds the limit after
this he shall have a painful chastisement. [2.179] And there
is life for you in (the law of) retaliation, O men of understanding, that you may guard
[2.190] And fight in the way of Allah with those who fight with you,
and do not exceed the limits, surely Allah does not love those who exceed the limits. [2.191] And kill them wherever you find them, and drive them out from whence
they drove you out, and persecution is severer than slaughter, and do not fight with them at the Sacred
Mosque until they fight with you in it, but if they do fight you, then slay them; such is the recompense of
002:193: And fight with them until there is no persecution, and
religion should be only for Allah, but if they desist, then there should be no hostility except against the
002:216-218: [2.216] Fighting is enjoined on
you, and it is an object of dislike to you; and it may be that you dislike a thing while it is good for
you, and it may be that you love a thing while it is evil for you, and Allah knows, while you do not know.
[2.217] They ask you concerning the sacred month about fighting in it. Say: Fighting in it is a grave matter, and hindering
(men) from Allah's way and denying Him, and (hindering men from) the Sacred Mosque and turning its people out
of it, are still graver with Allah, and persecution is graver than slaughter; and
they will not cease fighting with you until they turn you back from your religion, if they can; and whoever
of you turns back from his religion, then he dies while an unbeliever-- these it is whose works shall go for
nothing in this world and the hereafter, and they are the inmates of the fire; therein they shall abide.
[2.218] Surely those who believed and those who fled (their home) and
strove hard in the way of Allah these hope for the mercy of Allah and Allah is
002:244: And fight in the way of Allah, and know that Allah is Hearing,
[3.121] And when you did go forth early in the morning from your family to lodge the believers in encampments for war and Allah is Hearing, Knowing.
[3.122] When two parties from among you had determined that they should show
cowardice, and Allah was the guardian of them both, and in Allah should the believers trust. [3.123] And Allah did certainly assist you at [the Battle of] Badr when
you were weak; be careful of (your duty to) Allah then, that you may give thanks. [3.124] When you said to the believers: Does it not suffice you that your Lord should assist you
with three thousand of the angels sent down? [3.125] Yea! if you remain patient and are on your guard, and they come upon you in a headlong manner,
your Lord will assist you with five thousand of the havoc-making angels.
If a wound has afflicted you (at [the Battle of] Uhud), a wound like it has also afflicted the
(unbelieving) people; and We bring these days to men by turns, and that Allah may know those who believe and
take witnesses from among you; and Allah does not love the unjust.
(As for) those of you who turned back on the day when the two armies met, only the
Satan sought to cause them to make a slip on account of some deeds they had done, and certainly Allah has
pardoned them; surely Allah is Forgiving, Forbearing. [3.156] O you who believe! be not like those who disbelieve and say of their brethren when they travel in the
earth or engage in fighting: Had they been with us, they would not have died and they would not have been
slain; so Allah makes this to be an intense regret in their hearts; and Allah gives life and causes death
and Allah sees what you do.
[3.165] What! when a misfortune befell you, and you had certainly afflicted
(the unbelievers) with twice as much [with Jihad], you began to say: Whence is
this? Say: It is from yourselves; surely Allah has power over all things. [3.166]
And what befell you on the day when the two armies met ([the Battle of] Uhud) was with Allah's knowledge, and that He might know the believers.
[3.167] And that He might know the hypocrites; and it was said to them:
Come, fight in Allah's way, or defend
yourselves. They said: If we knew fighting, we would certainly have followed
you. They were on that day much nearer to unbelief than to belief. They say with their mouths what
is not in their hearts, and Allah best knows what they conceal.
3:169: And reckon
not those who are killed in Allah's way as dead; nay, they are alive (and) are provided sustenance from their
Lord [meaning they are enjoying their 72 virgins in heaven];
3:173 Those to whom the
people said: Surely men have gathered against you [in battle], therefore fear them,
but this increased their faith, and they said: Allah is sufficient for us and most excellent is the
3:195 So their Lord
accepted their prayer: That I will not waste the work of a worker among you, whether male or female, the one
of you being from the other; they, therefore, who fled and were turned out of their homes and persecuted in
My way and who fought and were slain, I will most certainly cover their evil
deeds, and I will most certainly make them enter gardens beneath which rivers flow; a
reward from Allah, and with Allah is yet better reward.
[4.71] O you who believe! take your precaution, then go forth in detachments
or go forth in a body [to war]. [4.72] And surely among you is he who
would certainly hang back [from Jihad]! If then a
misfortune befalls you he says: Surely Allah conferred a benefit on me that I was not
present with them [in Jihad].
[4.74] Therefore let those fight in the way of Allah, who sell this world's
life for the hereafter; and whoever fights in the way of Allah, then be he slain or be he victorious, We
shall grant him a mighty reward. [4.75] And what reason have you that you
should not fight in the way of Allah and of the weak among the men and the women
and the children, (of) those who say: Our Lord! cause us to go forth from this town, whose people are
oppressors, and give us from Thee a guardian and give us from Thee a helper. [4.76]
Those who believe fight in the way of Allah, and those who
disbelieve fight in the way of the Satan. Fight therefore against the friends of the Satan; surely the
strategy of the Satan is weak. [4.77] Have you not seen those to whom it was said:
Withhold your hands, and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate; but when fighting is
prescribed for them, lo! a party of them fear men as they ought to have feared Allah, or (even) with a
greater fear, and say: Our Lord! why hast Thou ordained fighting for us? Wherefore
didst Thou not grant us a delay to a near end? Say: The provision of this world is short, and the hereafter
is better for him who guards (against evil); and you shall not be wronged the husk of a date
4.084 Fight then in Allah's way; this is not imposed
on you except in relation to yourself, and rouse the believers to ardor maybe Allah
will restrain the fighting of those who disbelieve and Allah is strongest in prowess and strongest
to give an exemplary punishment.
4:089 They desire that you
should disbelieve as they have disbelieved, so that you might be (all) alike; therefore take not from among
them friends until they fly (their homes) in Allah's way; but if they turn back [to
their homes], then seize them and kill them wherever you find them, and take not from among them a friend
or a helper.
4:091 You will find others
who desire that they should be safe from you and secure from their own people; as often as they are sent back
to the mischief they get thrown into it headlong; therefore if they do not withdraw from you, and (do not)
offer you peace and restrain their hands, then seize them and kill them wherever you
find them; and against these We have given you a clear authority.
[4.94] O you who believe! when you go to war in Allah's way, make
investigation, and do not say to any one who offers you peace: You are not a believer. Do you seek goods of
this world's life! [Meaning that Muslim ought not say someone is a non-Muslim just to plunder him.] But with
Allah there are abundant gains; you too were such before, then Allah conferred a benefit on you; therefore
make investigation; surely Allah is aware of what you do. [4.95] The holders back
from among the believers, not having any injury, and those who strive hard [Jihad] in
Allah's way with their property and their persons are not equal; Allah has made the strivers with their
property and their persons to excel the holders back a (high) degree, and to each (class) Allah has promised
good; and Allah shall grant to the strivers [i.e., Jihadist] above the holders
back a mighty reward:
4:100 And whoever flies in Allah's way [forsakes his home to fight in Jihad], he will
find in the earth many a place of refuge and abundant resources, and whoever goes
forth from his house flying to Allah and His Apostle, and then death overtakes him [in Jihad], his reward is
indeed with Allah and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
4:102 And when you are among
them and keep up the prayer for them, let a party of them stand up with you, and let
them take their arms; then when they have prostrated themselves let them go to your rear, and let another
party who have not prayed come forward and pray with you, and let them take their
precautions and their arms; (for) those who disbelieve desire that you may be careless of your arms and
your luggage, so that they may then turn upon you with a sudden united attack, and there is no blame on you, if you are annoyed with rain or if you are sick, that you lay down your
arms, and take your precautions; surely Allah has prepared a disgraceful chastisement for the
4:104 And be not weak hearted in pursuit of the enemy; if you suffer pain, then surely they (too) suffer
pain as you suffer pain, and you hope from Allah what they do not hope; and Allah is Knowing,
5:033 The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His apostle and strive to make mischief in the
land is only this, that they should be murdered or crucified or their hands and their feet should be
cut off on opposite sides or they should be imprisoned [Pickthal and
Yusufali: exiled]; this shall be as a
disgrace for them in this world, and in the hereafter they shall have a grievous chastisement,
5:035 O you who believe! be
careful of (your duty to) Allah and seek means of nearness to Him and strive hard [at
Jihad] in His way that you may be
you will find the most violent of people in enmity for those who believe (to be) the
Jews [compare “ with “whenever Jews kindle fire for war, Allah [Muslims] puts it out” (K 005:064)] and those who are polytheists [while they are converted to Islam on pain of
8:005 Even as your Lord caused you to go
forth from your house with the truth, though a party of the believers were surely
Allah promised you one of the two (enemy) parties, that it should be yours: Ye wished
that the one unarmed should be yours, but Allah willed to justify the Truth according to His words and to cut
off the roots of the Unbelievers;-
8:009 When you sought aid from your Lord
[at the Battle of Badr], so He answered you: I will assist
you [in Jihad] with a thousand of the angels following one another [see
8:012 When your Lord revealed to
the angels: I am with you, therefore make firm those who believe. I will cast
terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Therefore strike off their heads and strike off every
fingertip of them.
[8.15] O you who believe! when you meet those who disbelieve marching for war,
then turn not your backs to them. [8.16] And whoever shall turn his back to
them on that day—unless he turn aside for the sake of fighting or withdraws to
a company-- then he, indeed, becomes deserving of Allah's wrath, and his abode is hell; and an evil
destination shall it be. [8.17] So you did not slay them, but
it was Allah Who slew them, and you did not smite when you smote (the enemy), but it was Allah Who smote
[Allah gets the credit for Jihad], and that He might confer upon the
believers a good gift from Himself; surely Allah is Hearing, Knowing.
8:039 And fight with them until there is no more persecution and religion should be only for Allah; but
if they desist, then surely Allah sees what they do.
8:042 When you were on the nearer side (of the
valley) and they were on the farthest side, while the caravan was in a lower place than you [the
Mekkan caravan the Muslims robbed]; and if you
had mutually made an appointment, you would certainly have broken away from the appointment, but-- in order
that Allah might bring about a matter which was to be done, that he who would perish
might perish by clear proof [all bring success to Jihad against all the
odds], and he who would live might live by clear proof; and most surely Allah is Hearing,
8:045 O you who believe! when you meet a party [in battle], then be firm, and remember Allah much, that you may be
[8.59] And let not those who disbelieve think that they shall come in first;
surely they will not escape. [8.60] And prepare
against them what force you can and horses tied at the frontier, to frighten thereby the enemy of Allah and
your enemy and others besides them, whom you do not know (but) Allah knows them; and whatever thing you will spend in Allah’s way [for Jihad], it will be paid back to you fully and you shall not be dealt with
urge the believers to war; if there are twenty patient ones of you they shall overcome two hundred, and if
there are a hundred of you they shall overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they are a people
who do not understand [in other words, do not understand totalitarian ideologies like
008:067: It is not fit for a prophet that he should take captives unless he
has fought and triumphed in the land; you desire the frail goods of this world [i.e., ransom money],
while Allah desires (for you) the hereafter; and Allah is Mighty,
008:069: Eat then of the lawful and good (things) which you have acquired in
war, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
008:071-072: [8.71] And if they intend to act unfaithfully towards you,
so indeed they acted unfaithfully towards Allah before, but He gave (you) mastery over
them; and Allah is Knowing, Wise. [8.72] Surely those who believed and fled
(their homes) and struggled hard in Allah's way with their property and their souls [in
Jihad], and those who gave shelter and helped [harbored terrorists]-- these are
guardians of each other; and (as for) those who believed and did not fly, not yours is their
guardianship until they fly; and if they seek aid from you in the matter of religion
[Jihad against people without a treaty—see next phrase], aid is incumbent on
you except against a people between whom and you there is a treaty, and Allah sees what you
008:074-075: [8.74] And (as for) those who believed
and fled and struggled hard in Allah’s way [Jihad], and those who gave shelter and
helped [harbored terrorists], these are the believers truly; they shall have forgiveness and honorable
provision. [8.75] And (as for) those who believed
afterwards and fled and struggled hard [Jihad] along with you, they are of you; and
the possessors of relationships are nearer to each other in the ordinance of Allah [terrorists have a close
relationship with those who harbor them]; surely Allah knows all things.
009:005: So when the sacred months have passed away, then slay the idolaters
wherever you find them, and take them captives and besiege them and lie in wait for
them in every ambush, then if they repent and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate, leave their way
free to them; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
009:012-014: [9.12] And if they break their oaths after their agreement
and (openly) revile your religion, then fight the leaders of unbelief-- surely
their oaths are nothing-- so that they may desist. [9.13] What! will you not fight a people who broke their oaths and aimed at the expulsion of the Apostle,
and they attacked you first; do you fear them? But Allah is most deserving that you should fear Him, if you
are believers. [9.14] Fight them, Allah will punish them by
your hands and bring them to disgrace, and assist you against them and heal the hearts of a believing
009:016: What! do you think that you will be left alone while Allah has not yet known
those of you who have struggled hard [Jihad] and
have not taken any one as an adherent besides Allah and His Apostle and the believers; and Allah is aware of
what you do.
009:019-020: [9.19] What! do you make (one who undertakes) the giving of
drink to the pilgrims and the guarding of the Sacred Mosque like him who believes in Allah and the latter day
and strives hard in Allah's way [Jihad]? They are not
equal with Allah; and Allah does not guide the unjust people. [9.20] Those who
believed and fled (their homes), and strove hard [Jihad] in
Allah's way with their property and their souls, are much higher in rank with Allah; and those are they
who are the achievers (of their objects).
009:024-026: [9.24] Say: If your fathers and your sons and your brethren
and your mates and your kinsfolk and property which you have acquired, and the slackness of trade which you
fear and dwellings which you like, are dearer to you than Allah and His Apostle and striving in His way [Jihad]:, then wait till Allah
brings about His command [to go on Jihad]: and Allah does not guide the
transgressing people. [9.25] Certainly Allah helped you in many battlefields and on the day of [the Battle of] Hunain, when your great numbers made you vain, but they availed you nothing and the earth
became strait to you notwithstanding its spaciousness, then you turned back retreating. [9.26] Then Allah sent down His tranquility upon His Apostle and upon the believers, and sent down
hosts which you did not see, and chastised those who disbelieved [Muhammad gives credit
to angels and Allah for the actions of Jihadists], and that is the reward of
009:029: Fight those who do not believe in Allah, nor in the latter day,
nor do they prohibit what Allah and His Apostle have prohibited, nor follow the
religion of truth, out of those who have been given the Book, until they pay the
tax in acknowledgment of superiority and they are in a state of subjection.
009:036: Surely the number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah's ordinance since the day
when He created the heavens and the earth, of these four being sacred; that is the right reckoning; therefore
be not unjust to yourselves regarding them, and fight the polytheists all together as
they fight you all together; and know that Allah is with those who guard (against evil).
009:038-039: [9.38] O you who believe! What (excuse) have you that when
it is said to you: Go forth in Allah's way [to Jihad], you should incline heavily to earth; are you contented with this world's life
instead of the hereafter? But the provision of this world's life compared with the hereafter is but little.
[9.38] If you do not go forth [to go on Jihad], He will chastise you with a painful chastisement and bring in your place a people other
than you [to go on Jihad], and you will do Him no harm; and Allah has
power over all things.
009:041: Go forth lightly [lightly armed] and heavy [heavily armed], and
strive hard in Allah's way [Jihad] with your
property and your persons; this is better for you, if you know.
009:044: They do not ask leave of you who believe in Allah and the latter day (to stay away) from
striving hard with their property and their persons [Jihad], and Allah knows those who guard (against evil).
009:052: Say: Do you await for us but one of two most excellent things? And we await for you that
Allah will afflict you with punishment from Himself or by our hands. So wait; we
too will wait with you.
009:073: O Prophet! strive hard [Jihad] against the
unbelievers and the hypocrites and be unyielding to them; and their abode is hell, and evil is the
009:081: Those who were left behind were glad on account of their sitting behind Allah's Apostle
and they were averse from striving m Allah's way [Jihad] with
their property and their persons, and said: Do not go forth [to Jihad] in the
heat. Say: The fire of hell is much severe in heat. Would that they understood (it).
009:083: Therefore if Allah brings you back to a party of them and then they ask your permission to
go forth, say: By no means shall you ever go forth with me and by no means shall you
fight an enemy with me [in Jihad]; surely you chose to sit the first time,
therefore sit (now) with those who remain behind.
009:086: And whenever a chapter is revealed, saying: Believe in Allah and strive hard [in Jihad] along with His Apostle, those having ampleness of
means ask permission of you and say: Leave us (behind), that we may be with those who sit.
009:088: But the Apostle and those who believe with him strive hard [in
Jihad] with their property and their persons; and these it is who shall have
the good things and these it is who shall be successful.
009:092: YUSUFALI: Nor (is there
blame) on those who came to thee to be provided with mounts [saddles on which to go to war], and when thou
said, "I can find no mounts for you," they turned back, their eyes streaming with tears of grief that they
had no resources wherewith to provide the expenses [to go on Jihad].
009:111: Surely Allah has bought of the believers their persons and their property for this, that
they shall have the garden; they fight in Allah's way, so they slay and are slain;
a promise which is binding on Him in the Taurat and the Injeel and the Quran; and who is more faithful to his
covenant than Allah? Rejoice therefore in the pledge which you have made; and that is the mighty
009:120: YUSUFALI: It was not fitting for the people of
Medina and the Bedouin Arabs of the neighborhood, to refuse to follow Allah's Messenger, nor to prefer their
own lives to his: because nothing could they suffer or do, but was reckoned to their credit as a deed of
righteousness,- whether they suffered thirst, or fatigue, or hunger, in the cause of
Allah [while on a march to Jihad], or trod paths to raise the ire of the Unbelievers [invade their
territory], or received any injury whatever from an enemy [during a Jihad battle]: for Allah suffers
not the reward to be lost of those who do good;-
009:122-123: [9.122] PICKTHAL: And the believers should not all go out to
fight. Of every troop of them, a party only should go forth, that they
(who are left behind) may gain sound knowledge in religion, and that they may warn their folk when they
return to them, so that they may beware. [9.123] O you who believe! fight those of the unbelievers who are near to you and let them find in you hardness; and
know that Allah is with those who guard (against evil).
016:110: YUSUFALI: But verily thy Lord,- to those who
leave their homes after trials and persecutions,- and who thereafter strive and fight
for the faith and patiently persevere,- Thy Lord, after all this is oft-forgiving, Most
022:039: Permission (to fight) is given to those upon whom war is
made because they are oppressed, and most surely Allah is well able to assist them;
022:078: And strive hard [in Jihad] in (the way of)
Allah, (such) a striving a is due to Him; He has chosen you and has not laid upon you a hardship in
religion; the faith of your father Ibrahim; He named you Muslims before and in this, that the Messenger may
be a bearer of witness to you, and you may be bearers of witness to the people; therefore keep up prayer and
pay the poor-rate and hold fast by Allah; He is your Guardian; how excellent the Guardian and how excellent
029:006: And whoever strives hard [in Jihad], he
strives only for his own soul; most surely Allah is Self-sufficient, above (need of) the
029:069: And (as for) those who strive hard [in Jihad] for Us, We will most certainly guide them in Our ways; and Allah is most surely with the
doers of good.
033:015: PICKTHAL: And verily they
had already sworn unto Allah that they would not turn their backs (to the foe)
[in Jihad battle]. An oath to Allah must be answered for.
033:018: Allah knows indeed those among you who hinder others and those who say to their brethren:
Come to us; and they come not to the fight [Jihad] but a
033:020: They think the allies are not gone, and if the allies should come (again) they would fain
[gladly] be in the deserts with the desert Arabs asking for news about you, and if they were among you
they would not fight save a little [in Jihad].
033:025-026: [33.25] And Allah turned back the unbelievers in their rage;
they did not obtain any advantage, and Allah sufficed the believers in
fighting; and Allah is Strong, Mighty.
[33.26] And He drove down those of the followers of the Book who backed them from their
fortresses and He cast awe into their hearts; some [Jews] you killed and you took captive
047:020: And those who believe say: Why has not a chapter been revealed? But when a decisive
chapter is revealed, and fighting [allusion to Jihad] is
mentioned therein you see those in whose hearts is a disease look to you with the look of one
fainting because of death. Woe to them then!
048:016: Say to those of the dwellers of the desert [the Bedouin] who
were left behind: You shall soon be invited (to fight) against a people possessing
mighty prowess; you will fight against them until they submit; then if you obey, Allah will grant
you a good reward [booty]; and if you turn back as you turned back before, He will punish you with a painful
048:022: And if those who disbelieve fight with you, they would certainly
turn (their) backs, then they would not find any protector or a helper.
059:002: He it is Who caused those who disbelieved of the followers of the Book to go forth from
their homes at the first banishment you did not think that they would go forth, while they were certain that
their fortresses would defend them against Allah; but Allah came to them whence they did not expect, and cast
terror into their hearts; they demolished their houses with their own hands and the hands of the believers [i. e. Muslims demolished Jewish homes]; therefore take a lesson,
O you who have eyes!
059:005-008: [59.5] Whatever palm-tree you cut down
or leave standing upon its roots [during a Jihad siege], It is by Allah's
command, and that He may abase the transgressors. [59.6] And whatever Allah
restored to His Apostle from them you did not press forward against it any horse or a
riding camel but Allah gives authority to His apostles against whom He pleases, and Allah has power over
all things. [59.7] Whatever Allah has restored to His Apostle
from the people of the towns [booty], it is for Allah and for the Apostle, and for the near of kin and
the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, so that it may not be a thing taken by turns among the rich of
you, and whatever the Apostle gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back, and be
careful of (your duty to) Allah; surely Allah is severe in retributing (evil): [59.8] (It is) for the poor who fled their homes and their possessions,
seeking grace of Allah and (His) pleasure, and assisting Allah and His Apostle
[booty]: these it is that are the truthful.
059:014: They will not fight against you in a body save in fortified towns or
from behind walls; their fighting between them is severe, you may think them as one body, and their
hearts are disunited; that is because they are a people who have no sense.
060:009: Allah only forbids you respecting those who made war upon you on
account of (your) religion [i.e., no fraternizing with the enemy], and drove you forth from your homes
and backed up (others) in your expulsion, that you make friends with them, and whoever makes friends with
them, these are the unjust.
061:004: Surely Allah loves those who fight in His way in ranks as if they
were a firm and compact wall.
063:004: And when you see them, their persons will please you, and If they speak, you will listen
to their speech; (they are) as if they were big pieces of wood clad with garments; they
think every cry to be against them. They are the enemy, therefore beware of them; may Allah destroy them,
whence are they turned back? [This verse speaks of internecine Jihad against
Muslims deemed infidels or “hypocrites.”]
064:014: O you who believe! surely from among your wives and your children
there is an enemy to you; therefore beware of them [collaborators with the enemy,
especially if the women were once war spoils]; and if you pardon and forbear and forgive, then surely
Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
066:009: O Prophet! strive hard against the unbelievers and the hypocrites,
and be hard against them; and their abode is hell; and evil is the resort.
073:020: Surely your Lord knows that you pass in prayer nearly two-thirds of the night, and
(sometimes) half of it, and (sometimes) a third of it, and (also) a party of those with you; and Allah
measures the night and the day. He knows that you are not able to do it, so He has turned to you
(mercifully), therefore read what is easy of the Quran. He knows that there must be among you sick, and
others who travel in the land seeking of the bounty of Allah, and others who fight in
Allah's way, therefore read as much of it as is easy (to you), and keep up prayer and pay the
poor-rate and offer to Allah a goodly gift, and whatever of good you send on beforehand for yourselves, you
will find it with Allah; that is best and greatest in reward; and ask forgiveness of Allah; surely Allah is
FROM A DICTIONARY OF ISLAM
THOMAS PATRICK HUGHES
JIHAD Lit. "An effort, or a striving." A religious war
with those who are unbelievers in the mission of Muhammad.. It is an incumbent religious duty, established
in the Qur’an and in the Traditions as a divine institution, and enjoined specially for the purpose of
advancing Islam and of repelling evil from Muslims.
When an infidel’s country is conquered by a Muslim ruler, its inhabitants are offered
(1) The reception of Islam, in which case the conquered
become enfranchised citizens of the Muslim state.
(2) The Payment of a poll-tax (Jizyah), by which unbelievers
in Islam obtain protection, and become Zimmis, provided they are not the
idolaters of Arabia.
(3) Death by the sword, to those who will not pay the poll
Sufi writers say that there are two Jihads: al-Jihadu
‘l-Akbar, or "the greater warfare," which is against one’s own lusts; and al-Jihadu ‘l-asghar, or "the lesser warfare," against infidels.
The duty of religious war (which all commentators agree is a duty extending to all
time) is laid down in the Qur’an in the following verses, and it is remarkable that all the verses occur
in the al-Madinah Surahs, being those given after Muhammad had established himself as a paramount ruler
and was in a position to dictate terms to his enemies.
Surah ix.5,6: "And when the sacred months are passed, kill those who join other gods
with God wherever ye shall find them; and seize them, besiege them, and lay wait for them with every kind
of ambush: but if they shall convert, and observe prayer and pay the obligatory alms, then let them go
their way, for God is Gracious, Merciful. If any one of those who join gods with God ask an asylum of
thee, grant him an asylum, that he may hear the Word of God, and then let him reach his place of safety.
This, for that they are people devoid of knowledge."
Surah ix. 29: "Make war upon such of those to whom the Scriptures have been given as
believe not in God, or in the last day, and who forbid not that which God and His Apostle have forbidden,
and who profess not the profession of the truth, until they pay tribute (Jizyah) out of hand, and they be humbled."
Surah iv. 76-79: "Let those then fight on the path of God, who exchange this present
life for that which is to come; for whoever fighteth on God’s path, whether he be slain or conquer, we
will in the end give him a great reward. But what hath come to you that ye fight not on the path of God,
and for the weak among men, women, and children, who say, ‘O our Lord! Bring us forth from this city
whose inhabitants are oppressors; give us a champion from Thy presence; and give us from thy presence a
defender.’ They who believe, fight on the path of God; and they who believe not, fight on the path of
Tagut: Fight therefore against the friends of Satan. Verily the craft of Satan shall be powerless! Hast
thou not marked those to who it was said, ‘Withhold your hands awhile from
war; and observe prayer, and pay the stated alms.’ But when war is commanded them, lo! A portion
of them fear men as with the fear of God, or with a yet greater fear, and say: "O our Lord! Why has Thou
commanded us war? Couldst thou not have given us respite till our not distant end?’ Say: Small the
fruition of this world; but the next life is the true good for him who
feareth God! And ye shall not be wronged so much as the skin of a date-stone."
Surah ii.214, 215: "They will ask thee concerning war in the Sacred Month. Say: To war
therein is bad, but to turn aside from the cause of God, and to have no faith in Him and in the Sacred
Temple, and to drive out its people, is worse in the sight of God; and civil strife is worse than
bloodshed. They will not cease to war against you until they turn you from your religion, if they be
able: but whoever of you shall turn from his religion and die an infidel, their works shall be fruitless
in this world, and in the next: they shall be consigned to the fire; therein to abide for aye. But they
who believe, and who fly their country, and fight in the cause of God may hope for God’s mercy: and God
is Gracious, Merciful.
Surah viii. 39-42: "Say to the infidels: If they desist from
their unbelief, what is now past shall be forgiven them; but if they return to it, they have already before them the doom of the ancients! Fight then against them till
strife be at an end, and the religion be all of it God’s. If they desist, verily God beholdeth what they
do: but if they turn their back, know ye that God is your protector: Excellent protector! excellent
helper! And know ye, that when ye have taken any booty, a fifth part belongeth to God and to the Apostle,
and to the near of kin, and to orphans, and to the poor, and to the wayfarer.
Long chapters in the Traditions are devoted to the subject of Jihad (see
Sahihu ‘lBukhari and Sahihu Muslim, Arabic
editions, Babu ‘l-Jihad) from which the following are quotations of the sayings of the
"God is sponsor for him who goeth forth to fight on the road of God (Sabilu ‘llah). If he be not killed, he shall return to his house with rewards and booty, but if
he be slain, he shall be taken to Paradise."
"I swear by God I should like to be killed on the road of God, then be killed and
brought to life again, then killed again and then brought to life again, so that I may obtain new rewards
"Guarding the frontiers of Islam for even one day is worth more than the whole world
and all that is in it."
"The fire of hell shall not touch the legs of him who shall be covered with the dust
of battle in the road of God."
He who assists another with arms to fight in the way of God, is as the champion, and
is a sharer of the rewards. And he who stayeth behind to take charge of the family of a warrior is even
as a champion in war."
"This religion will ever be established, even to the Day of Resurrection, as long as
Muslims fight for it."
"In the last day the wounds of those who have been wounded in the way of God will be
evident, and will drop with blood, but their smell will be as the perfume of musk."
"Being killed in the road of God covers all sins, but the sin of debt."
"He who dies and has not fought for the religion of Islam, nor has even said in his
heart, ‘Would to God I were a champion that could die in the road of God,’ is even as a
"Fighting in the road of God, or resolving to do so, is a divine duty. When your Imam
[leader] orders you to go forth to fight, then obey him."
The following is the teaching of the Hanafi school of Sunnis on the subject of Jihad,
as given in the Hidayah, vol. Ii. P. 140:--
"The sacred injunction concerning war is sufficiently observed when it is carried on
by any one party or tribe of Muslims, and it is then no longer of any force with respect to the rest. It
is established as a divine ordinance, by the word of God, who said in the Qur’an, ‘Slay the infidels,’
and also by a saying of the Prophet, ‘War is permanently established until the Day of Judgment’ (meaning
the ordinance respecting war). The observance, however, in the degree above mentioned, suffices, because
war is not a positive injunction, as it is in its nature murderous and destructive, and is enjoined only
for the purpose of advancing the true faith or repelling evil from the servants of God; and when this end
is answered by any single tribe or party of Muslims making war, the obligation is no longer binding upon
the rest, in the same manner as in the prayers for the dead-(if, however, no one Muslim were to make war,
the whole of the Muslim, would incur the criminality of neglecting it) – and also because if the
injunction were positive, the whole of the Muslims must consequently engage in war, in which case the
materials for war (such as horses, armour, and so forth) could not be procured. Thus it appears that the
observance of war as aforesaid suffices, except where there is a general summons (that is, where the
infidels invade a Muslim territory, and the Imam for the time being issues a general proclamation
requiring all persons to go forth to fight), for in this case war becomes a positive injunction with
respect to the whole of the inhabitants, whether men or women, and whether the Imam be a just or an
unjust person; and if the people of that territory be unable to repulse the infidels, then war becomes a
positive injunction with respect to all in that neighbourhood; and if these also do not suffice it, then
comes a positive injunction with respect to the next neighbours; and in same manner with respect to all
the Muslims from east to west.
"The destruction of the sword is incurred by infidels, although they be not the first
aggressors, as appears from various passages in the traditions which are generally received to this
"It is not incumbent upon infants to make war, as they are objects of compassion;
neither is it incumbent upon slaves or women, as the rights of the master, or of the husband, have
precedence; nor is it so upon the blind, the maimed, or the decrepid, as such are incapable. If, however,
the infidels make an attack upon a city or territory, in this case the repulsion of them is incumbent
upon all Muslims, insomuch that a wife may go forth without consent of her husband, and a slave without
the leave of his master, because war then becomes a positive injunction; and possession, either by
bondage or by marriage, cannot come in competition with a positive injunction, as in prayer (for
instance) or fasting. This is supposing a general summons; for without that it is not lawful for a woman
or slave to go forth to make war without the consent of the husband or master, as there is in this case
no necessity for their assistance, since others suffice, and hence no reason exists for destroying the
right of the husband or master on that account. If there be any fund in the public treasury, so long as
the fund lasts any extraordinary exaction for the support of the warriors is abominable, because such
exaction resembles a hire for that which is a service of God as much as prayer or fasting, and, hire
being forbidden in these instances, so is it in that which resembles them. In this case, moreover, there
is no occasion for any extraordinary exactions, since the funds of the public treasury are prepared to
answer all emergencies of the Muslims, such as war, and so forth. If, however, there be no funds in the
public treasury, in this case the Imam need not hesitate to levy contributions for the better support of
the warriors, because in levying a contribution the greater evil (namely, the destruction of the person)
is repelled, and the contribution is the smaller evil, and the imposition of a smaller evil to remedy a
greater is of no consequence. A confirmation of this is found in what is related of the Prophet, that he
took various articles of armour, and so forth, from Safwan and ‘Umar; in the same manner also he took
property from married men, and bestowed it upon the unmarried, in order to encourage them and enable them
to go forth to fight with cheerfulness; and he also used to take the horses from those who remained at
home, and bestowed them upon those who went forth to fight on foot. When the Muslims enter the enemy’s
country and besiege the cities or strongholds of the infidels, it is necessary to invite them to embrace
the faith, because Ibn ‘Abbas relates of the Prophet that he never destroyed any without previously
inviting them to embrace the faith. If, therefore, they embrace the faith, it is unnecessary to war with
them, because that which was the design of the war is then obtained without war. The Prophet, moreover,
has said we are directed to make war upon men only until such time as they shall confess, ‘There is no
God but one God.’ But when they repeat this creed, their persons and properties are in protection
(aman). If they do accept the call to the faith, they must then be called
upon to pay jizyah, or capitation tax, because the Prophet directed the
commanders of his armies so to do, and also because by submitting to this tax war is forbidden and
terminated upon the authority of the Qur’an. (This call to pay capitation tax, however, respects only
those from whom the capitation tax is acceptable, or, as to apostates and the idolaters of Arabia, to
call upon them to pay the tax is useless, since nothing is accepted from them but embracing the faith, as
it is thus commanded in the Qur’an). If those who are called upon to pay capitation tax consent to do so,
they then become entitled to the same protection and subject to the same rules as Muslims because ‘Ali
had declared infidels agree to a capitation tax only in order to render their blood the same as Muslims’
blood, and their property the same as Muslims’ property.
"It is not lawful to make war upon any people who have never before been called to the
faith, without previously requiring them to embrace it, because the Prophet so instructed his commanders,
directing them to call the infidels to the faith, and also because the people will hence perceive that
they are attacked for the sake of religion, and not for the sake of taking their property, or making
slaves of their children, and on this consideration it is possible that they may be induced to agree to
the call, in order to save themselves from the troubles of war.
"If a Muslim attack infidels without previously calling them to the faith, he is an
offender, because this is forbidden; but yet if he do attack them before thus inviting them and slay
them, and take their property, neither fine, expiation, nor atonement are due, because that which
protects (namely, Islam) does not exist in them, nor are they under protection by place (namely the
Daru ‘l-Islam, or Muslim territory), and the mere prohibition of the act is not
sufficient to sanction the exaction either of fine or of atonement for property; in the same manner as
the slaying of the women or infant children of infidels is forbidden, but if, notwithstanding, a person
were to slay such, he is not liable to a fine. It is laudable to call to the faith a people to whom a
call has already come, in order that they may have the more full and ample warning; but yet this is not
incumbent, as it appears in the Traditions that the Prophet plundered and despoiled the tribe of
al-Mustaliq by surprise, and he also agreed with Asamah to make a predatory attack upon Qubna at an early
hour, and to set it on fire, and such attacks are not preceded by a call. (Qubna is a place in Syria:
some assert it is the name of a tribe).
"If the infidels, upon receiving the call, neither consent to it nor agree to pay
capitation tax, it is then incumbent on the Muslims to call upon God for assistance, and to make war upon
them, because God is the assistant of those who serve Him, and the destroyer of His enemies, the
infidels, and it is necessary to implore His aid upon every occasion; the Prophet, moreover, commands us
so to do. And having so done, the Muslims must then with God’s assistance attack the infidels with all
manner of warlike engines (as the Prophet did by the people of Ta’if), and must also set fire to their
habitations (in the same manner as the Prophet fired Baweera), and must inundate them with water and tear
up their plantations and tread down their grain because by these means they will become weakened, and
their resolution will fail and their force be broken; these means are, therefore, all sanctified by the
"It is no objection to shooting arrows or other missiles against the infidels that
there may chance to be among them a Muslim in the way either of bondage or of traffic, because the
shooting of arrows and so forth among the infidels remedies a general evil in the repulsion thereof from
the whole body of Muslims, whereas the slaying of a Muslim slave or a trader is only a particular evil,
and to repel a general evil a particular evil must be adopted, and also because it seldom happens that
the strongholds of the infidels are destitute of Muslims, since it is most probable that there are
Muslims residing in them, either in the way of bondage or of traffic, and hence, if the use of missile
weapons were prohibited on account of these Muslims, war would be obstructed. If the infidels in time of
battle should make shields of Muslim children, or of Muslims, who are prisoners in their hands, yet there
is no need on that account to refrain from the use of missile weapons, for the reason already mentioned.
It is requisite, however, that the Muslims in using such weapons aim at the infidels, and not at the
children or the Muslim captives, because, as it is impossible in shooting to distinguish precisely
between them and the infidels, the person who discharges the weapon must make this distinction in his
intention and design by aiming at the infidels, and not at the others, since this much is practicable,
and the distinction must be made as far as is practicable."
"There is also neither fine nor expiation upon the warriors on account of such of
their arrows or other missiles as happen to hit the children or the Muslims, because the war is in
observance of a divine ordinance, and atonement is not due for anything which may happen in the
fulfillment of a divine ordinance, for otherwise men would neglect the fulfillment of the ordinance from
an apprehension of becoming liable to atonement. It is otherwise in the case of a person eating the bread
of another when perishing for hunger, as in that instance atonement is due; although eating the bread of
other people, in such a situation, be a divine ordinance, because a person perishing for hunger will not
refrain from eating the provision of another, from the apprehension of atonement, since his life depends
upon it; whereas war is attended with trouble and dangerous to life, whence men would be deterred, by
apprehension of atonement, from engaging in it. There is no objection to the warriors carrying their
Qur’ans and their women along with them, where the Muslim force is considerable, to such a degree as to
afford a protection from the enemy, and not to admit of any apprehension from them, because in that case
safety is most probable, and a thing which is most probable stands and is accounted as a thing certain.
If the force of the warriors be small (such as is termed a Sarriyah) so as
not to afford security from the enemy, in this case their carrying their women or Qur’ans along with them
is reprobated, because in such a situation taking those with them is exposing them to dishonour; and
taking the Qur’an with them, in particular, is exposing it to contempt, since infidels scoff at the
Qur’an, with a view of insulting the Muslims; and this is the true meaning of the saying of the Prophet,
‘Carry not the Qur’an along with you into the territory of the enemy’ (that is, of the infidels). If a
Muslim go into an infidel camp under a protection, there is no objection to his taking his Qur’an along
with him, provided these infidels be such as observe their engagements, because from these no violence is
to be apprehended.
"It is lawful for aged women to accompany an army, for the performance of such
business as suits them, such as dressing victuals, administering water, and preparing medicines for the
sick and wounded; but with respect to young women, it is better that they stay at home, as this may
prevent perplexity or disturbance. The women, however, must not engage in fight, as this argues weakness
in the Muslims. Women, therefore, must not take any personal concern in battle unless in a case of
absolute necessity; and it is not laudable to carry young women along with the army, either for the
purpose of carnal gratification, or for service; if, however, the necessity be very urgent, female slaves
may be taken, but not wives. A wife must not engage in a fight but with the consent of her husband, nor a
slave but with the consent of his owner (according to what was already stated, that the right of the
husband and the master has precedence), unless from necessity where an attack is made by the
"It does not become Muslims to break treaties or to act unfairly with respect to
plunder or to disfigure people (by cutting off their ears and noses, and so forth); for as to what is
related of the Prophet, that he disfigured the Oorneans, it is abrogated by subsequent prohibitions. In
the same manner it does not become Muslims to slay women or children, or men aged, bedridden, or blind,
because opposition and fighting are the only occasions which make slaughter allowable (according to our
doctors), and such persons are incapable of these. For the same reason also the paralytic are not to be
slain, nor those who are dismembered of the right hand, or of the right hand and left foot. Ash-Shafi’I
maintains that aged men, or persons bedridden or blind may be slain because, (according to him)
infidelity is an occasion of slaughter being allowable, and this appears in these persons. What was
before observed, however, that the paralytic or dismembered are not to be slain, is in proof against him,
as infidelity appears in these also, yet still they are not slain, whence it is evident that mere
infidelity is not a justifiable occasion of slaughter. The Prophet, moreover, forbade the slaying of
infants or single persons, and once, when the Prophet saw a woman who was slain, he said, ‘Alas! This
woman did not fight, why, therefore, was she slain?’ But yet, if any of these persons be killed in war,
or if a woman be a queen or chief, in this case it is allowable to slay them, they being qualified to
molest the servants of God. So, also, if such persons as the above should attempt to fight, they may be
slain, for the purpose of removing evil, and because fighting renders slaying allowable.
"A lunatic must not be slain unless he fight, as such a person is not responsible for
his faith, but yet where he is found fighting it is necessary to slay him, for the removal of evil. It is
also to be observed that infants or lunatics may be slain so long as they are actually engaged in fight,
but it is not allowed to kill them after they are taken prisoners, contrary to the case of others, who
may be slain even after they are taken, as they are liable to punishment because they are responsible for
"A person who is insane occasionally stands, during his lucid intervals, in the same
predicament as a sane person."
It is abominable in a Muslim to begin fighting with his father, who happens to be
among the infidels, nor must he slay him, because God has said in the Qur’an, ‘Honour thy father and they
mother,’ and also because the preservation of the father’s life is incumbent upon the son, according to
all the doctors, and the permission to fight with him would be repugnant to that sentiment. If, also, the
son should find the father, he must not slay him himself, but must hold him in view until some other come
and slay him: for thus the end is answered without the son slaying his father, which is an
"If, however, the father attempt to slay the son, insomuch that the son is unable to
repel him but by killing him, in this case the son need not hesitate to slay him, because the design of
the son is merely to repel him, which is lawful; for if a Muslim were to draw his sword with a design of
killing his son, in such a way that the son is unable to repel him but by killing him, it is then lawful
for the son to slay his father, because his design is merely repulsion. In a case, therefore, where the
father is an infidel, and attempts to slay his son, it is lawful for the son to slay the father in
self-defence a fortiori."
"If the Imam make peace with aliens, or with any particular tribe or body of them, and
perceive it to be eligible for the Muslims, there need be no hesitation, because it is said in the
Qur’an: ‘If the infidels be inclined to peace do ye likewise consent thereto,’ and also because the
Prophet in the year of the punishment of Eubea, made a peace between the Muslims and the people of Mecca
for the space of ten years; peace, moreover is war in effect where the interest of the Muslims requires
it, since the design of war is the removal of evil, and this is obtained by means of peace: contrary to
where peace is not to the interest of the Muslims, for it is not in that case lawful, as this would be
abandoning war both apparently and in effect. It is here, however, proper to observe that it is not
absolutely necessary to restrict a peace to the term above recorded (namely, ten years), because the end
for which peace is made may be sometimes more effectually obtained by extending it to a longer term. If
the Imam make peace with the aliens for a single term (namely, ten years), and afterwards perceive that
it is most advantageous for the Muslim’s interest to break it, he may in that case lawfully renew the war
after giving them due notice, because, upon a change of the circumstances which rendered peace advisable,
the breach of peace is war, and the observance of it a desertion of war, both in appearance and also in
effect, and war is an ordinance of God, and the forsaking of it is not becoming (to Muslims). It is to be
observed that giving due notice to the enemy is in this case indispensably requisite in such a manner
that treachery may not be induced, since this is forbidden. It is also requisite that such a delay be
made in renewing the war with them, as may allow intelligence of the peace being broken off to be
universally received among them, and for this such a time suffices as may admit of the king or chief of
the enemy communicating the same to the different parts of their dominion, since by such a delay the
charge of treachery is avoided."
"If the infidels act with perfidy in a peace, it is in such case lawful for the Imam
to attack them without any previous notice, since the breach of treaty in this instance originates with
them, whence there is no occasion to commence the war on the part of the Muslims by giving them notice.
It would be otherwise, however, if only a small party of them were to violate the treaty by entering the
Muslim territory and there committing robberies upon the Muslims, since this does not amount to a breach
of treaty. If, moreover, this party be in force so as to be capable of opposition, and openly fight with
the Muslims, this is a breach of treaty with respect to that party only, but not with respect to the rest
of their nation or tribe, because, as this party have violated the treaty without any permission from
their prince, the rest are not answerable for their act; whereas if they made their attack by permission
of their prince, the breach of treaty would be regarded as by the whole, all being virtually implicated
"If the Imam make peace with the aliens in return for property, there is no scruple;
because since peace may be lawfully made without any such gratification it is also lawful in return for a
gratification. This, however, is only where the Muslims stand in need of the property thus to be
acquired; for if they be not in necessity, making peace for property is not lawful, since peace is a
desertion of war both in appearance and in effect. It is to be observed that if the Imam receive this
property by sending a messenger and making peace without the Muslim troops entering the enemy’s
territory, the object of disbursement of it is the same as that of jizyah or capitation-tax; that is, it is to be expended upon the warriors and not upon the
poor. If, however, the property be taken after the Muslims have invaded the enemy in this case it is as
plunder, one-fifth going to the Imam and the remainder to be divided among the troops, as the property
has in fact been taken by force in this instance. It is incumbent on the Imam to keep peace with
apostates, and not to make war upon them, in order that they may have time to consider their situation,
since it is to be hoped that they may again return to the faith. It is, therefore, lawful to delay
fighting with them in a hope that they may again embrace Islam; but it is not lawful to take property
from them. If, however, the Imam should take property from them, it is not incumbent upon him to return
it, as such property is not in protection. If infidels harass the Muslims, and offer them peace in return
for property, the Imam must not accede thereto as this would be a degradation of the Muslim honour, and
disgrace would be attached to all the parties concerned in it; this, therefore, is not lawful except
where destruction is to be apprehended, in which case the purchasing a peace with property is lawful,
because it is a duty to repel destruction in every possible mode."