Foundation of citizenship
Social phase of citizenship
Economic phase of citizenship
Philosophy of American Government
1. National defense. — Under the national defense act as amended in 1920.
the War Department, among its many other duties, is charged with the
task of recruiting and training the young men of our Nation through enlistments
in the Regular Army, voluntary enlistment in the Reserve Officers Training
Corps of high schools, colleges, universities, and in the 30-day training
period in citizens' military training camps throughout the nine corps areas of
the United States. The combined average yearly strength of these various units
approximates some 260,000 young men between the
ages of 16 and 25 years, the most critical period in the determination of
their real value as citizens of our country.
It is. therefore, essential that the training of these young men embody,
with their instruction in military science, at least a basic course in the
science of government and the privileges, duties, and responsibilities of the
individual citizen, in order that they may be returned to civilian life better
equipped as the defenders of the institutions of our Government in time of
peace as well as in time of war.
2. Citizenship training. — Training in citizenship is the most vital of all
subjects to that nation whose system of government, security of property, and
full power to express individual initiative are based upon the intelligence,
education, and character of each individual citizen.
3. Individual initiative. — Individual initiative is the product of slow
progress in the development of the idea and ideals of self-goveinment. It was
cherished in the minds of the early Germanic tribes, transmitted by them in the
fifth century to the conquered British Isles, there developed and finally
transferred in principle to the shores of America 300 years ago.
From the landing of the first settlers through the slow and perilous years
of colonial development, the struggles of the Revolutionary days, the hardships
and privations following the adoption of our Constitution, the winning of the
Great West, the fight to save our Union, and the tremendous accomplishments in
the development of agricultural and industrial resources, individual
initiative, coupled with community cooperation, has been a determining factor,
a spur to our achievements, and a guaranty to our national security.
The protest of the Colonies against usurpation of the rights of citizens,
the Declaration of Independence, the Revolutionary War, the writing and
adoption of the Constitution of the United States. and the ever-increasing
development in population, industry, wealth, and security, denoting the
achievements of the United States, would not have been possible lacking the
spirit of individual initiative and the talent for self-government. The United
States worked out its own destiny by the simple process of hard labor inspired
with the knowledge of full opportunity in the exercise of individual ability,
and sure reward and protection in the possession of the fruits of their
4. Foundation of citizenship. — In any instruction in citizenship productive
of lasting results, there must be woven into the study the story of the faith,
sacrifice, service, and achievements of the pioneers of America from the
landing of the Pilgrims to the settlement of the Great West and the development
of our vast national resources. This story, pregnant with hope, faith, courage,
and the will to work. is the rock foundation upon which to build the structure
of citizenship in the youth of today that the future may be assured in
perpetuity of the institutions, principles, ideals, and traditions the
development of which has made the United States great among the nations of the
A study of the census reports of the United States, particularly during the
past 50 years, reveals a condition that to every thinking man and woman is
fraught with grave danger to the continuation and maintenance of our
constitutional form of government and the blessings of liberty which we enjoy.
We must be prepared to recognize this situation and find the solution of the
6. Social phase of citizenship. — As the result of the changing life stream
of America, there has arisen one of the greatest problems of our national life.
Up to 30 years ago approximately 90 per cent of all immigration to America was
of Anglo-Saxon origin, that race of people which has been working out the
problem of self-government for nearly 2,000 years. Due to the remarkable
impetus given to industrial development following 1890, opportunity for
employment was offered and every inducement made to secure the immigration of
European common labor, resulting in an immediate change in the type of
immigration to America, by which central. eastern, and southern Europe
increased their totals by over fifty times in the 50 years from 1870 to
The history of the nations from which this later immigration originated is
that of large cultural advantages in art. literature, and science, enjoyed by
the ruling and favored minority, while oppression, privation, and suffering
were endured by the great majority of their subjects.
This latter class, without knowledge of self-government, denied the
opportunity for self-development, eagerly responding to the call of American
opportunity, emigrated to our shores, here to enjoy full participation in the
rights of American citizenship without a proper understanding of the meaning of
liberty or the nature and value of our free institutions, the very foundation
of which is laid in intelligent and active participation in government by our
A course of instruction in citizenship to be effective must develop the
social phase of citizenship and be particularly directed to the native and
foreign-born youth, setting up a clear understanding of
this great problem of assimilation and amalgamation of the bloods of all
nations into the virile life stream of America.
6. Economic phase of citizenship. — The industrial achievements of America
have become the marvel of the world. Therefore the economic phase of
citizenship must be developed with careful study and with all the wisdom we
possess that we may assure continued progress to the welfare, tranquillity, and
enrichment of our own citizens and at the same time steer a safe course for our
ship of state in the maelstrom of world envy engendered by a knowledge of our
wealth and power.
In the accomplishment of our industrial achievements the United States has
reinvested its profits in the development of horsepower, automatic machinery,
labor-saving devices, transportation, communication, organization,
administration, and, since the World War, has given further impetus to its
accomplishments by sharing more and more the fruit of her industries with the
wage-earning class. In the progress thus made the demand for brains to replace
brawn has been an ever-increasing factor in the production of our goods as to
quantity and quality in order to maintain our sense of well-being, high
standards of living, and to meet the competition of the world at large.
A course of instruction in citizenship must emphasize the necessity of the
education of our masses as an economic measure in supplying the great need of
7. Philosophy of American Government. — The philosophy of government, as set
up under our Constitution, finds its keynote in individualism as opposed to
that misguided philosophy of government, collectivism, which makes the State
paramount in its demands over the inalienable rights of its individual
citizens. Incomprehensible as it may seem, the political problems of America
and of the world at large are embodied in this question of individualism as
opposed to collectivism as the philosophy of government for the future
development and welfare of nations.
Emphasis must be laid upon the benefits and advantages accruing to each
individual citizen of our country under the form of government set up as the
supreme law of the land in the Constitution of the United States of
||MISSION OF COURSE
Knowledge, the safeguard of our Republic---------------------------- 9
Character building -------------------------------------------------------
8. General purpose. — This course in citizenship is designed to teach the
fundamental principles upon which our Government is founded, including an
insight into the social and economic elements upon which our civilization
stands. Special emphasis is laid upon the meaning of "liberty," as interpreted
by the founders of this Republic, and the larger relationship of the individual
citizen to others and to his Government, defining loyalty and national
responsibility in terms of citizenship, recognizing that an intelligent and
informed people is a greater asset than are the unintelligent, uninformed, or
misinformed, and that no government can exist upon a plane higher than the
moral character of its people.
9. Knowledge, the safeguard of our Republic. — Because of the rapid increase
in our population, largely made up of immigrants from all parts of the world,
the tendency within the family and the school is to neglect the training of our
youth in the knowledge of his Government and his individual responsibility. It
can not be expected that foreign-born parents, lacking knowledge or inspiration
of American ideals, will be either fitted or inspired to give such instruction
to their own children.
The indifference or the neglect of native-born citizens concerning the
training of their children to meet the responsibilities of citizenship is
largely caused by lack of information and proper tinderstanding of the history,
ideals, and underlying principles of our political institutions.
The remarkable development of industry in America has caused a congestion of
population in our large cities, creating social, economic, and political
problems that materially affect the structure of our Government.
The solution of the problems of citizenship lies largely in the education of
the youth of America in the principles of representative government and their
personal responsibility in perpetuating and improving her free
10. Character building. — The ever-increasing wants as compared to the needs
of humanity, the added individual burdens and problems of modern civilization,
emphasizing material rather than
ethical and spiritual attainment, are tending to break down the character of
It is the mission of this course to specially emphasize the moral aspects of
citizenship — to build up home discipline, reverence for religion, and respect
for constituted authority.
11. National defense. — Education and training in citizenship form a vital
part of national defense. It will be the mission of this course to interpret
national defense through a broad and comprehensive instruction in citizenship,
stressing the responsibility of the individual citizen to become fully prepared
for the defense of his country in any emergency that may arise, whether of
domestic or foreign import, in peace or in war.
Time allotted -------------------------------------------------------------
12. Time allotted. — In this course of citizenship adequate time will be
allotted for instruction, arranged in a number of short periods of not more
than 40 minutes' duration each, which may be supplemented by addresses and
travelogues illustrated with stereopticon slides, covering outstanding phases
of American history, given to combined groups at such time and frequency as
directed by the camp commander, with special reference to rainy-day
Outlined topics ----------------------------------------------------------
Subject matter suggestive -----------------------------------------------
Plan of instruction -------------------------------------------------------
Selection of instructors -------------------------------------------------
Suggestions for instructors ---------------------------------------------
Supplemental instruction -----------------------------------------------
13. Outlined topics. — This course will be given under a series of outlined
topics briefly presented by the instructor, preceded by a few succinct
historical statements bearing upon the development of our country.
14. Questionnaire. — Brief questionnaires, containing a number of questions
pertinent to the subject matter contained in each lesson, are given as an aid
to the instructor in guiding the general discussions by the students.
15. Subject matter suggestive. — This course is not intended
to teach the details of American history, but to give special emphasis to
pertinent facts and principles associated with the foundation, development, and
preservation of our Government as to its social, economic, and political
phases. The instructors should briefly explain the historical and psychological
aspects to the various forms of government. '
The subject matter and illustrations are suggestive only and are given as
guides in teaching the fundamental principles of government and citizenship.
The instructor will make application of these principles in such a manner as to
stimulate individual thinking, leaving it to the student to reach his own
conclusions based upon the facts and situations discussed.
18. Plan of instruction. — In the presentation of this course it is
necessary for the instructor to give certain definite and concise information
concerning the outstanding characteristics of our country; the fundamental
principles of our Government; the spirit and will to do by which it attained
its present position; emphasizing the encouragement, assistance, and protection
granted every individual citizen as guaranteed in our Constitution as the
supreme law of the Nation; developing the idea of individual responsibility and
intelligent participation in government as an economic necessity as well as an
evidence of patriotism and loyalty to our country.
The didactic method concerning facts of history, social changes, economic
development, and basic principles of our Government will be used without
discussion and without argument, special emphasis being given to the fact that
the United States is a Republic, not a democracy.
Group discussions will be led by the instructor covering the cardinal points
of each lesson as outlined in the text, care being exercised to confine the
discussion to the limits of the lesson.
17. Selection of instructors. — There shall be designated a director of
citizenship training for each Citizens' Military Training Camp. Under his
supervision company officers carefully selected by the camp commander will act
as instructors in this course.
18. Suggestions for instructors. — Instructors are particularly cautioned to
confine instruction and discussion in each study period not only to the lesson
text but also to keep it within the scope of the general division (social,
economic, political) to which that particular lesson is related. The tendency
is to wander away into a discussion of all three phases of citizenship, because
of the close interrelationship existing in- all the lessons. Clarity of
instruction can be had only through close observance of this suggestion.
The instructor must use language simple enough to be readily understood by
The text of these lessons is so arranged as to permit additional time for
study and discussion when such opportunity is available through accommodation
to rainy-day schedules.
19. Supplemental instruction. — At the discretion of the camp commander,
instruction may be supplemented by addresses given by selected speakers to the
combined student body on subjects related to citizenship.
As a part of this course historic facts and brief statements taken from the
speeches and writings of distinguished Americans may be projected on the screen
immediately preceding the feature picture at all motion-picture shows.
20. Efficiency. — To secure the most efficient results, the officers
detailed as instructors should be thoroughly trained in the method of using the
various studies in citizenship and the questionnaires.
A refresher or normal course will be conducted in each camp for the
instruction of the designated instructors in subject matter and method of
presentation, with the view of having the classes in citizenship faced by
instructors as alert, competent, and as confident as are the platoons in the
PART II — COURSE OF INSTRUCTION
I. Lesson 1. — The American citizen
II. Lesson 2. — Independent relationships ---------------------
III. Lesson 3. — Character, the greatest asset of America ----- 45-52
IV. Lesson 4. — Great Americans and their achievements --- 53-71
V. Lesson 5. — Economic development of America ---------
VI. Lesson 6. — Individual initiative --------------------------
VII. Lesson 7. — Liberty and independence ---------------- 103-112
VIII. Lesson 8. — The purpose of government -------------- 113-117
IX. Lesson 9. — Representative government ---------------
X. Lesson 10. — Personal responsibility
XI. Lesson 11. — Self-preservation -------------------------
XII. Lesson 12. — The American flag -----------------------
|SECTION I LESSON 1
||THE AMERICAN CITIZEN
Definition of citizenship ------------------------------------------------
Origin of citizenship ----------------------------------------------------
Source of American citizenship ---------------------------------------
Acquisition of American citizenship ----------------------------------
Immigration and naturalization.
No dual allegiance------------------------------------------------------
Dual citizenship ---------------------------------------------------------
Right of suffrage----------------------------------------------------------
Guaranties as to person and property -------------------------------- 28
Obligations of citizenship ---------------------------------------------
I am an American --------------------------------------------------------
21. Definition of citizenship. — Citizenship is that membership in a nation
which includes full civil and political rights, subject to such limitations as
may be imposed by the government thereof.
22. Origin of citizenship. — Citizenship as we understand it today is the
result of centuries of social, economic, and political experiments, in which
improvement in human relations has slowly developed the idea of the benefits of
governmental rules and restrictions for the protection of the rights of persons
Ancient Greece was composed of a number of city states, each one independent
of the other and conferring certain privileges upon its subjects. The greatest
advantages of citizenship among these city states was conferred by the
Athenians, limited, however, to native sons of native fathers and mothers,
excluding from such privileges foreigners and slaves. The Athenian idea of
citizenship was philosophical rather than practical.
It was left to the Romans, in succeeding centuries, to develop the more
practical phases of citizenship, i.e., safety of the Republic, public service,
stern simplicity, devotion to duty.
Above all other duties and obligations was placed that of unselfish duty to
the state. It was this Roman virtue of loyalty to public duty, this devotion on
the part of the citizen to the interest of the state, that, more than any other
quality of the Roman character, helped to make Rome great.
Roman citizenship was confined to a privileged class, native or adopted. In
the Anglo-Saxon races there was slowly developed the idea and ideals of
self-government and of individual worth, in contrast with the earlier Greek and
Roman domination of the state over the individual.
Out of these experiments in government and human relations there has been
evolved the ideals and principles of American citizenship.
23. Source of American citizenship. — The source of American citizenship is
found in the Constitution and subsequent Federal enactments.
24. Acquisition of American citizenship. — American citizenship is acquired
in two ways:
Birth. — For 150 years following the first settlement of the American
Colonies their inhabitants were citizens and subjects of a foreign power.
With the successful conclusion of tho Revolutionary War, terminating with
the treaty of peace, 1783, all persons born in the United States before the
Declaration of Independence could be regarded as American citizens.
By the civil rights act of 1866 it was provided that —
All persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power,
excluding Indians not taxed, are declared to be citizens of the United
By the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution —
All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the
jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein
It has been decided by the Supreme Court of the United States that the
children of domiciled aliens born in the United States are citizens under the
fourteenth amendment. This is also true of the children of alien parents
ineligible to citizenship through naturalization.
Immigration and naturalization. — Under the Constitution, Congress is
given the power over both immigration and naturalization. In order to determine
their fitness to enter the United States, each immigrant, on his arrival, is
subjected to a physical and mental examination by officers of the Public Health
Service. Under the immigration act the following classes of persons are
excluded from entering the United States:
Idiots. Insane. Epileptics.
Paupers and persons likely to become a public charge. Professional
Persons suffering from tuberculosis or other dangerous or loathsome
Persons physically or mentally so defective as to be unable to making a
Persons convicted of a crime or misdemeanor involving moral turpitude,
Women or girls imported for immoral purposes and persons aiding in their
Contract laborers — that is, those induced to migrate by offers or promise
of employment or by agreement, except artists and professional men.
Children under 16 years of age unaccompanied by their parents.
With certain exceptions no alien ineligible to citizenship is admissible to
the United States.
All aliens brought into the country in violation of the law are, if
possible, immediately sent back to the country whence they came on the vessel
bringing them, at the expense of the vessel owners.
There is also a heavy fine upon the transportation company or vessel owner
for unlawfully introducing immigrants into the United States
Because of the great influx of nonassimilable people, which tended to lower
American standards of living, and to better develop a homogenous body politic,
Congress, in 1923, passed the immigration restriction act.
The abnormal immigration to America is shown in the census returns of 1900,
1910, and 1920, as follows:
The law governing immigration provides that the annual quota from each
country until July 1, 1927, is 2 per cent of the number of foreign-born persons
of such nationality resident in continental United States as shown by the 1890
census, but the minimum quota of any nationality shall be 100.
The quota for each fiscal year thereafter will be based on a total
immigration of 150,000.
The annual quota of any nationality for the fiscal year beginning July 1,
1927, and for each fiscal year thereafter, shall be a number which bears the
same ratio to 150,000 as the number of inhabitants in continental United States
in 1920 having that national origin (ascertained as hereinafter provided in
this section) bears to the number of inhabitants in continental United States
in 1920, but the minimum quota of any nationality shall be 100. —
Immigration laws, 1927.
Under the Articles of Confederation the power of naturalization was in the
States, thereby creating confusion through the lack of uniformity in conferring
The authority for naturalization is to be found in the Constitution and
The Constitution has accordingly, with great propriety * * * authorized the
General Government to establish a uniform rule of naturalization throughout the
United States. — Madison.
Constitution, Article I, Sect. 8, Para. 4; Fourteenth Amendment.
Under the Constitution two methods of naturalization have grown up:
(1) By the general act of Congress conferring citizenship upon a whole class
of persons, such as tribes of Indians, and the inhabitants of a new territory,
like Hawaii, acquired by the United States.
(2) The general and more usual method is prescribed by the Revised Statutes,
which requires the fulfillment of certain conditions before final admission
R. S. 3S1. Oath renouncing foreign allegiance and to support constitution
and laws. — He shall, before he is admitted to citizenship, declare on oath
in open court that he will support the Constitution of the United States, and
that he absolutely and entirely renounces and abjures all allegiance and
fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, State, or sovereignty, and
particularly by name to the prince, potentate, State, or sovereignty of which
he was before a citizen or subject; that he will support and defend the
Constitution and laws of the United States against all enemies, foreign and
domestic, and bear true faith and allegiance to the same. — June 29, 1906,
ch. 3592, sec. 4. 34 Stat. 596.
R. S. 382. Evidence of residence, character, and attachments to
principles of Constitution; evidence of witnesses. — It shall be made to
appear to the satisfaction of the court admitting any alien to citizenship that
immediately preceding the date of his application he has resided continuously
within the United States, five years at least, and within the State or
Territory where such court is at the time held one year at least, and that
during that time he has behaved as a man of good moral character, attached to
the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and well disposed to
the good order and happiness of the same. In addition to the oath of the
applicant, the testimony of at least two witnesses, citizens of the United
States, as to the facts of residence, moral character, and attachment to the
principles of the Constitution shall be required, and the name, place of
residence, and occupation of each witness shall be set forth in the record. —
June 29, 1906, ch. 3592, sec. 4, 34 Stat. 596.
25. No dual allegiance. — Every alien should become a citizen in
order that he may vote and hold office, and in all ways take an active part in
developing, building and maintaining the Government — national and local — that
There can be no divided allegiance here. Any man who says he is an American,
but something else also, isn't an American at all. We have room for but one
flag, the American flag, and this excludes the red flag, which symbolizes all
wars against liberty and civilization, just as much as it excludes any foreign
flag of a nation to which we are hostile.
We have room for one sole loyalty and that is loyalty to the American
people. — Roosevelt.
26. Dual citizenship. — The Supreme Court declares that there are two kinds
of citizenship, State and National.
Citizens of the United States residing in any State enjoy the rights of both
State and United States citizenship.
In the protection thereof we look to the National Government if the source
of such rights lies in the Constitution and laws of the United States; and to
the State government if such rights are based upon the constitution and laws of
Dual citizenship does not imply a divided allegiance. While a State commands
allegiance of its citizens the paramount allegiance is to the Union.
Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable. —
27. Right of suffrage. — Under the Constitution, the National Government
confers American citizenship, but it is left to the States to determine who may
vote at both its own and national elections. — Constitution, Article I,
section 8, paragraph 4; fourteenth and fifteenth amendments.
In America public opinion is the ultimate force of Government. It is the
expression of the mind and conscience of the whole Nation, without respect to
sectional or partisan alliances.
Under the Constitution, voting is the only means provided for the expression
of public opinion — it is the exercise of the will of the citizen in the
protection of his rights.
28. Guaranties as to person and property. — The United States is composed of
48 sovereign States, each State having its individual constitution and laws.
Yet no State may discriminate against the rights and privileges of the citizen
of any other State as to person or property. Among these guaranties are —
Opportunity for education and individual improvement.
Unrestricted possession of property.
Joint rights to interstate commerce, communication, and transportation.
Freedom of residence and choice of occupation.
Care or protection on the high seas or abroad through passport privileges
and international law.
29. Obligations of citizenship. — Active citizenship is gained only by
becoming an enfranchised citizen of a State. This carries with it the
obligation of a clear understanding of the principles of government and the
courage to demand that these principles be not abridged.
Andrew Jackson said that every good citizen makes his country's honor his
own. and not only cherishes it as precious, but sacred.
Lincoln declared: "I must stand by anybody that stands right; stand with him
while he is right; and part with him when he is wrong."
It is essential that the individual citizen exercise his right of franchise
— vote — as his paramount duty at all elections.
Uphold the Constitution as the one assurance of the security and
perpetuation of the free institutions of America.
Practice self-government to assure good government for all.
Respect the rights of others, to assure the enjoyment of his own.
Contribute to the maintenance of his Government by the payment of taxes.
Obey the law as the first essential to law enforcement. Place service to
country above service to self. Conform his conduct to the best interests of
society. The opportunities and privileges of the American citizen are limited
only by his individual ability, his personal habits, and conformity to
necessary legal regulations. It is your obligation to exercise —
Care in your choice of occupation. Diligence in preparation for your task.
Thrift to insure advancement and prosperity. Judgment in selection of
companions. Integrity, honor, initiative, self-reliance, self-control.
80. I am an American. — "I am an American" is a challenge to the highest
ideals and aspirations of mankind; to self-sacrifice and devotion: to loyalty
and patriotism; to joyful work and courageous achievement; to magnanimity and
charity to all and malice to none; as we seek to uphold and perpetuate the
principles of our great Republic.
I live an American; I shall die an American; and I intend to perform the
duties incumbent upon me in that character to the end of my career. I mean to
do this with absolute disregard of personal consequences. What are the personal
consequences? What is the individual man, with all the good or evil which may
betide him, in comparison with the good or evil which may befall a great
country, and in the midst of great transactions which concern that country's
fate? Let the consequences be what they will. I am careless No man can suffer
too much, no man fall too soon, if he suffer, or if he fall ill the defense of
the liberties and Constitution of his country — Daniel Webster.
In the days of the Caesars "I am a Roman citizen" was a proud exultant
declaration. It was protection. It was more — it was honor and glory. Twenty
centuries of advancing civilization have given to the declaration "I am an
American" a higher and nobler place. It stands today in the forefront of
earthly titles. It proclaims a sharing in the greatest opportunities. It is a
trumpet call to the highest fidelity. It is the diploma of the world, the
highest which humanity has to bestow — Judge Brewer of the Supreme
Describe the development of the idea of "citizenship."
What is the source of "American citizenship"?
How is "American citizenship" acquired?
What is the status of the children of domiciled aliens born in the United
Who has power over immigration and naturalization?
To what examination is the immigrant subjected on his arrival? What classes
of persons are excluded from the United States by the Immigration Act? What
disposition is made of immigrants belonging to the restricted classes? To whom
is the execution of the Immigration Laws entrusted?
What was the significance of the immigration to America by the census
returns of 1900, 1910, and 1920?
What has Congress done to limit immigration? Why? What is the source of the
authority for naturalization? Explain the provision for naturalization under
the Articles of Confederation. Under the Constitution. What is the attitude of
the United States toward "dual allegiance"?
Explain the meaning of "dual citizenship."
What is the function of "public opinion"?
Who has power over the right of suffrage?
What guaranties, as to person and property are provided the citizen by the
Name several obligations of citizenship.
Why ought an alien become a citizen?
Why should every citizen vote?
SECTION II LESSON 2. — INTERDEPENDENT RELATIONSHIPS
Development of civilization --------------------------------------------
Mutual relationships ---------------------------------------------------
Community relationships -----------------------------------------------
Coordinated action. National relationships -------------------------- 34
Articles of Confederation.
Interstate commerce. International relationships ------------------- 35
The State Department. Beneficial to person and property -------- 36
Law: Uniform acceptance and observance.
Beneficial to production ----------------------------------------------- 37
Accumulation of capital.
Relations between management and men
Results in progress ------------------------------------------------------
A Nation of specialists --------------------------------------------------
Interdependence of capital, labor, and consumer ------------------ 40
The telephone Public utilities -----------------------------------------
Business. Beneficial to peace -----------------------------------------
Unselfishness. Cosmopolitan character of population-------------- 43
Full privileges of citizenship.
Immigrant not all problem. Our opportunity ----------------------- 44
31. Development of civilization. — Civilization had its beginning in the
establishment of the family, then in the grouping of families, tribes, states,
Through these various stages there was developed a crude order of society
based primarily upon the will of an outstanding individual with power to
enforce that will by control of physical forces and the means of livelihood.
Thus was established the basis of society, imperfect in its form, inadequate in
its results, yet containing the essential elements for refinement and progress,
viz, social intercourse, protection, and advantages.
32. Mutual relationships. — In the beginning, lacking means of communication
and transportation and confining efforts principally to the production of mere
necessities of life, individuals and groups lived largely independently of each
With increasing wants, the result of enlightened intellect, with increasing
facilities in transportation and communication, with development of ability for
invention and improvement, independence gave way to interdependence to such a
degree that today the welfare of every individual is woven into the fabric of
33. Community relationships. — If you destroy the dam builded by a colony of
beavers, they set about its reconstruction, using the identical plan, method,
and tools common to their species throughout all generations. Animal
intelligence contains no quality that enables improvement beyond the inherited
abilities or instincts of its kind. Herein lies the marked distinction between
the highest type of animal and the lowest type of human intelligence.
Man possesses the ability to profit by the accomplishments of the past, to
improve, and to develop. Upon this ability the development of past
civilizations has depended. Upon this same ability the civilizations of the
present and future are predicated. Out of this have grown community
relationships established in ordered society upon the law of reason,
supplanting the law of will, and ever increasing in its benefits to all, with
the growing understanding of the rights and worth of the individual member of
Coordinated action. — Coordinated group action has strength in so far
as its members work together for the attainment of a common purpose — the
subordination of self for the good of all. Only by helping others can we help
ourselves. "He profits most who serves best."
In the development of her strength, wealth, and accomplishments America is
founded upon the establishment of successive communities bound together
individually and collectively, by interdependent relationships created and
coordinated in home, school, church, and local self-government, as expressed in
town meetings in which each individual member contributed his part to that
greatest of all forces by which the character of the people of our Nation is
sustained and developed — public opinion.
34. National relationships. — In the development of our colonies the need of
protection for person and property, of cooperation in the development of
resources, of exchange of products and labor in the creation of comforts and
wealth, of consolidated action in resisting oppression and establishing rights,
created a national relationship
binding communities and States in a federation designed for the welfare of
Articles of Confederation. — Under the Articles of Confederation,
trade rivalries separated the new States from each other. There was an emphasis
of State over National interests: One State lost its supply of cheap
manufacturing material; industries suffered from want of coal, factories from
lack of material, markets were limited; economic barriers were set up, no
cooperation existed, exclusiveness prevailed.
Constitution. — Grown now to a union of 48 States, working in a
spirit of harmony and cooperation, restricted yet greatly benefited by our
Constitution and statutes, we have come to be in point of wealth, attainment,
and influence one of the outstanding nations of the world.
Under our Constitution the departments of government are set up for the
express purpose of coordination and cooperation for the general welfare of the
Interstate commerce. — Notwithstanding the sovereignty of each of the
States composing our Union, great freedom is enjoyed as to residence, travel,
trade, and property rights among their citizens which has developed an
interstate commerce of tremendous volume and worth.
Commerce among the States embraces navigation, intercourse, communication,
travel, the transit of persons, transmission of messages by telegraph. —
Railways, air transports, postal service, telephones, telegraph, radiograms,
help to unite the Nation by an exchange of goods or information, so that each
citizen may know and profit by what the others are doing.
The Interstate Commerce Commission contributes to the development of "a more
perfect union," which is an active association for cooperative effort. This
commission touches the various interests of all of the people. Its benefits of
regulations are in the interest of public necessities. It provides for a quick
settlement of labor disputes affecting interstate trade and transportation, the
control of which is lodged in the Federal Government.
35. International relationships. — In the development of those international
relations which are in accord with the principles of interdependence, each
nation must assume a larger responsibility and take a more active part in world
Due to the remarkable progress of civilization, isolation is no longer
possible. International problems developing from ever-changing economic and
political conditions demand consideration and application of the principles of
interdependent relationships as the means of securing the general welfare of
I demand that the Nation do its duty and accept the responsibility that must
go with greatness. — Roosevelt.
The State Department. — The State Department is the "friendly
relations department" of our Government; by treaties and diplomatic
negotiations beneficent relationships with foreign counties are secured and
insured, establishing a spirit of accord and amity without which it would not
be possible to carry on our part in world affairs to the good of all
36. Beneficial to person and property. — The efficacy of our Constitution
lies in the fact that it contains a statement of fundamental purposes relating
to human associations and plan for their accomplishment, susceptible of such
interpretation as to make them applicable to changing conditions.
Among the purposes set forth in the Preamble to the Constitution are
"domestic tranquillity" and "general welfare." The accomplishment of these
purposes is based upon observance of the principles of interdependent
Law: Uniform acceptance and observance. — The security of persons and
property is one of the inherent rights of mankind. It is guarded and guided by
statutory laws, uniform in their restrictions and benefits, so that every
citizen is fully protected in his rights.
Uniform laws are valuable in their benefits in proportion to uniform
acceptance and observance. May a man have complete personal liberty? May a man
do as he pleases? He may provided he is not a member of organized society. To
attempt such action as a citizen constitutes him an outlaw in such ratio as his
independence interferes with the rights of others and breaks down the structure
of government. All crime is, ignorantly or wilfully, a violation of the
principle of interdependent relationships.
Experience has revealed the necessity for united action to assure the
greatest protection to the individual. Neither in person nor property will the
individual find security without the assistance of his neighbor, community,
State, and Nation. The higher the value we place upon human life and welfare,
and the greater our accumulation of property, the more we must rely upon
interdependent relationships based upon justice and inspired by mutual
confidence and reciprocal endeavor.
37. Beneficial to production. — Industry is essentially the subjection of
natural forces — the manipulation of natural material to the
uses of mankind; it brings into action the worker, the engineer, the
inventor, the organizer, the administrator, the combined energies of whom are
liberated and set in motion by finance.
Accumulation of capital. — Thrift is the foundation stone of
effective economic interdependence. The individual must practice frugality,
engage in hard work, and acquire the habit of wise spending — so living within
his means as to enable a saving of a portion of the product of his labor.
In industry wealth is the product of saving; it is secured in part by the
elimination of waste and the corresponding conservation of materials and labor
practiced by both individuals and groups, and saving or the accumulation of
capital is as much the duty of the employee as of the employer.
Relations between management and men. — To derive the greatest value
from interdependent relationship between employer and employee there must be
created a spirit of good will and cooperation in which there is a recognition
of mutual worth and mutual responsibility.
The atmosphere surrounding the relationship between management and men must
eliminate fear, apprehension, and uncertainty. Only by the establishment of
mutual understanding, confidence, and respect can effective cooperation and
teamwork be secured. That employee renders best service who has an intelligent
understanding of the relation of his part to the whole.
38. Results in progress. — Bound together by the ties of common interest and
mutual benefits, Society has advanced from the crude hieroglyphic to the
printed page. The smoke signal of the Indian to the radio. The tallow candle to
the electric light. The hollowed log canoe to the Leviathan. The
ox-drawn prairie schooner to the airplane.
39. A Nation of specialists. — We are a Nation of specialists because
experience has taught us that greater benefits will accrue to one and all
through each individual learning to do one thing well.
The physician looks after our health. The teacher gives instruction. The
farmer grows the grain. The lawyer attends to legal matters.
Others specialize in providing all the comforts and conveniences of
No one citizen builds his own house, manufactures the plumbing equipment,
generates the electricity, constructs the heating plant, or provides the fuel
for its operation. He does not pave the street, put in his own waterworks,
provide police and fire protection, establish his own school, church, hospital,
40. Interdependence of capital, labor, and consumer. — Individual
necessities, comforts, and conveniences as now enjoyed are the product of
accumulated capital and labor, represented in modern organization,
transportation, great factories, distant farms, tropical plantations, the
trappers of the frozen northlands, tho fishermen of the seas, and delivered
daily to our homes by an army of tradesmen who administer, to our wants and are
in turn dependent upon us for their livelihood.
The telephone. — No better illustration of interdependence can be
found than in the story of that all-necessary convenience, the telephone) It is
difficult to imagine the diversified labor, the problems of transportation, the
world-wide accumulation of materials, and the tremendous outlay of capital
required in the manufacture of this marvelous instrument which receives and
transmits the human voice regardless of distance.
Men toiling in the mica mines of India, in the platinum fields of the Ural
Mountains, in the forests and jungles of far-off Asia, Africa, and South
America, in the great forests of the Northwest, in the iron, copper, and lead
mines, and the great steel works of the United States, produce the materials
that go into the making of your telephone and the exchange controls.
The following raw materials, gathered literally from the four corners of the
world, are used: Platinum, gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron, steel, tin, lead,
aluminum, nickel, brass, rubber, mica, silk, cotton, asphalt, shellac, paper,
With the assembling of raw materials, and their fabrication in great
factories into the completed instrument, there is added the work of
organization and administration required in obtaining capital, franchises,
building lines and conduits, installation of switchboards, and training
personnel. Your telephone call to all points of the compass is made possible by
these materials and the labor of nearly1400,000 employees in the United States
41, Public utilities. — Public utilities corporations build great
hydroelectric plants in one State for distribution of power to many. Coal,
copper, iron ore are mined and transported to places of greatest advantage to
industry. Railroad, telegraph, and telephone companies invest billions of
dollars in properties and conduct their affairs to the benefit and profit of
the Nation. Great dams are constructed and the desert lands of many States made
the vast irrigation systems treated. Capital is consolidated and labor
employed, farms enriched, cities builded, and our citizens bound together in
one cooperative, prosperous, happy union by the magic power of interdependent
Business. — Business, to insure success, must keep in closest touch
with the ever changing affairs of social, economic, and political conditions.
Vast sums of money are spent on new products, improved equipment, research
laboratories, inventions, in creating new appetites and new markets.
42. Beneficial to peace. — In America a degree of independence is developed
out of which is born the idea in the minds of many that a citizen of the United
States may be a law unto himself, retaining, however, the disposition to
regulate the other fellow. If he does not like the law he seeks a way to evade
it, at the same time shouting vociferously over the increase of crime and the
lessened influence of our courts. He demands the highest wages obtainable and
complains at the prices he must pay for the product of his fellow laborer. He
insists upon his right to independence and liberty, yet is ever ready to
restrict such action on the part of others. That citizen who has not developed
the spirit of cooperation, understanding and tolerance is at war with his
The unity of good men is a basis on which the security of our internal peace
and the establishment of our Government may safely rest. It will always prove
an adequate rampart against the vicious and disorderly. —
Unselfishness. — Every American citizen must guard against the spirit
of selfishness, the inordinate desire for material gain, the temptation to live
beyond his means, and the tendency to find the easiest way to obtain the most
in satisfying his constantly increasing wants.
Honesty — individual and collective, national and international —
inspiring confidence wherein there is neither room for trickery nor unfair
practices is the basis of the principle of interdependent relationships. Such
honesty rests not so much upon legal rights as upon the Golden Rule.
43. Cosmopolitan character of population. — The United States in her
philosophy of self-determination emphasizes the ideas and ideals of human
rights and human associations. In the fulfillment of this policy she opened
wide her gates to the peoples of the earth, inviting them to share with her the
blessings of liberty.
Somewhat less than half the racial stock of America's 108,000,000 white
inhabitants are of British blood. Of the 95,000,000 whites, in 1920, 14,000,000
were born in foreign countries and 23,000,000 were of foreign or mixed
parentage. There are 1,672.000 Germans, 1,600,000 Italians, 1,250,000 Russians,
500,000 Czechoslovakians, 465,000 Austrians, 370,000 Hungarians. There are
1,500,000 foreign born over 10 years of age unable to speak the English
language. This foreign population supports over 1,000 newspapers published in
30 different languages.
There are no more untapped racial reserves.
Full privileges of citizenship. — The immigrant to America is
particularly favored under the laws of the United States. Before the
native-born youth can exercise the right of franchise he must live under the
influence of our system of Government, acquire his education, and enlarge it
through associations and experience for a period of 21 years from his birth to
his majority. It is possible for the immigrant (18 years or over), subject to
certain restrictions to issuance of first papers, with little education,
without that knowledge of our Government, association and experience, obtained
only through years of residence, to have granted to him the full privileges of
citizenship five years after his arrival.
Resultant duties. — In return for the opportunities and privileges
established through her own sacrifices and paid for with the enormous exactions
of treasure and human life, she expects — and has the right to demand that
those who accept her hospitality shall respect her principles — that those who
elect to live in the security and comfort of her homes and institutions shall
give due honor and award full allegiance to her Constitution and shall in no
instance, either by choice or through ignorant acquiescence, seek to despoil
the land in which were bred freedom, equality, and opportunity.
The cosmopolitan character of the population of America emphasizes the
burden which rests upon every citizen to become fully informed in the
underlying principles and ideals of our republican form of Government.
Class consciousness. — Class consciousness and class activity is the
result largely of the intrusion of ideas of government entirely outside of the
fixed principles set forth in our Constitution and should be no more tolerated
in our country than we would expect our principles, if introduced by
expatriated Americans, to be accepted by another nation.
Immigrant not all problem. — The immigrant is not all problem. He has
been one of the outstanding assets in the development of America. Slowly, but
surely, there is being assimilated and amalgamated in this country the bloods
of practically all nations, in the
development of a racial stock of exceptional worth in 'its vigor, ability,
44. Our opportunity. — One of our greatest problems is the education,
assimilation, and amalgamation of these various and numerous foreign groups
into an understanding, harmonious, loyal, and upstanding American
To this and succeeding generations is given the opportunity to develop from
our homogeneous character an outstanding race expressive of the highest
principles, ideals, and traditions to which a God-loving, humanity-loving,
liberty-loving people can aspire. To accomplish this great work there must be a
composition of all differences which tend to create class consciousness and
class hatreds. Tolerance, born of knowledge, understanding, respect, sympathy,
and harmony, engendered by the spirit of a common cause and purpose, are
essential in the interpretation of the principles of interdependent
Why did independence give way to interdependence? In what did it result?
Upon what has the development of civilization always depended?
What is the value of coordinate action?
State some of the principal causes that led to the creation of national
How did trade rivalry under the Articles of Confederation separate the new
States from each other?
In what way was this situation changed by the Constitution?
How does interstate commerce assure a more perfect union?
How did railways, postal service, telephones, telegraph, and radio help to
unite the Nation?
What is the attitude of the United States toward the problem of
What is the principal duty of the State Department?
In our complex civilization, may any individual live in complete
Could any State maintain itself upon its own resources? Explain.
How are "domestic tranquillity" and "general welfare" accomplished?
In what way does the individual find security in person and property?
What relations between management and men are essential to successful
What are some of tho results in human progress that have been caused by the
ties of common interest and mutual benefit?
What led the United States to become a nation of specialists?
Describe the interdependence of capital, labor, and consumer.
In what way does the telephone illustrate the principle of interdependence?
Business? Public utilities?
What is the foundation of peace and prosperity?
What principal race stocks have contributed to American life?
What is the duty of America to our cosmopolitan population?
Is patriotism wholly selfish?
SECTION III LESSON 3. —
CHARACTER, THE GREATEST ASSET OF AMERICA
The greatest asset of America -----------------------------------------
National character ------------------------------------------------------
The ideals of the American colonists.
Community life, church, and town meeting.
The pioneer spirit.
Tenacity of purpose.
Individual character -----------------------------------------------------
Deeds an expression of character.
No collective morality.
Desire for education and religion.
Foundation of character.
Daily performance necessary.
Physical character ------------------------------------------------------
Developed by pioneers.
Visions become realities.
Spirit of improvement and invention.
Success possible to every citizen.
Ethical character ---------------------------------------------------------
High standards of commercial life.
Spirit of cooperation and compromise.
No class domination.
Spirit of benevolence.
Political character ------------------------------------------------------
45. The greatest asset of America. — Diversity of opinion as to what is
America's greatest asset creates a discussion which leads into every section
and every activity of our country. Each individual is governed by the interest
that lies closest to his heart.
The doctor declares: "The greatest asset of America is found in our medical
schools, hospitals, and our great accomplishments in saving life and insuring
the health of our people, for without health there could be no other great
The teacher asserts: "Our common-school system, our colleges, universities,
and our press constitute our greatest asset, for without education industry
would stop and our Government disintegrate."
The captain of industry states: "Industry is our greatest asset. What would
America be without New England, New York, Pittsburgh, Detroit, Chicago, and the
thousands of other industrial centers giving employment to millions while they
supply the needs of the world?"
Likewise the inventor, the chemist, the scientist, each makes the claim that
the fruit of his labor is the greatest asset of America, for what great things
in America would have been possible without the creative genius?
The farmer insists that the doctor, the teacher, the industrialist, the
scientist, and all the others would not get very far if he failed for a single
season to provide the means for clothing and food — to him the greatest asset
They all are right; there are elements of greatness in all the varied
endeavors of bur country, the coordination of which has brought prosperity and
wealth in such measure as to make us envied of all people.
46. Cooperation. — Forty-eight States, extended between the Atlantic and the
Pacific, independent, self-governing Commonwealths, rich in resources, engaged
in their own affairs; congested industrial areas of our great cities, pouring
out their products to the enrichment of the Nation; millions of farmers
providing food and clothing; teachers, preachers, merchants, laborers, lawyers,
and clerks, contributing their part; all are working together in the spirit of
47. Character. — What unites a people composed of all the racial stocks of
the world? What composes our differences, harmonizes our relationships? What
inspires confidence, insures credit, and promotes organization? What, in the
last analysis, guarantees protection of person and property, gives assurance of
peace and prosperity, and inspires America to greater adventures and larger
The answer is not to be found in the sum of all her natural resources,
factories, farms, homes, schools, hospitals, and churches. These are created by
man and by man can be destroyed.
The security of our property, the continuation of our institutions, the
increase of our possessions and the perpetuity of the principles
of individual rights, justice, and freedom, the observance of which has made
America, lie in character — the greatest asset of America.
48. National character. — The ideals of the American colonists. — The
national character of America is grounded in the Puritan stock of the early
colonies. From these original settlers, numbering in 1640 a total of 26,000,
there has descended to the present time nearly one-fourth of our total
population. Up to 50 years ago their descendants and immigrants from the same
racial stock composed over 80 per cent of our population.
The outstanding traits of their stalwart characters were defined in the
commonplace affairs of their daily lives. They made no play for heroics, were
not primarily seekers of fame nor fortune. Lovers of liberty, they boldly
fought to maintain their rights: Their dominant trait was the worship of God, a
God to be feared, yet a God of justice. A God who punished, yet a God who
loved. Bigoted and narrow to the verge of superstition, intolerant of all
faiths save their own, they builded a character which to following generations
will ever prove their richest heritage.
A stern will born and bred of necessity, hard as the "stern and rock-bound
coast" near which they lived, deep and cold as the seas that beat upon their
rugged shores, they knew no compromise with duty — it must be done. No easy way
was sought nor excuse accepted for duty unperformed.
Community life, church, and town meeting. — They established schools,
churches, and town meetings, always dominated and often ruled with the iron rod
of church authority. In time, bigoted religious intolerance gave way to
religious liberty, yet not with the slightest change in the high standards of
moral and spiritual rectitude required of every member of the community.
Possessing pride of race, proud of their ancestry, they inspired in the
hearts of their children a reverence and respect for family and race which left
no room for lax conduct or easy habits. Severely disciplined within their
homes, carefully supervised in their education, the children were taught the
obligation of participation in community affairs and were obliged to submit to
the severe restrictions imposed by their elders through the laws enacted by the
local town meeting.
The restrictions of these laws and the severity of punishment imposed for
the slightest infraction are cause for astonishment in these days of easy
morals and lax law observance, yet their value as conducive to upright living,
strict morals, and honest endeavor is strikingly evidenced by the pronounced
influence of the New England community, the church and town meeting, in molding
the national character of America.
The New England town was founded for and grouped about the church, which was
the clubhouse of the time. But the glory of the New England town was its town
meeting, a combination of neighborhood, society, caucus, legislature, and
council meeting. This was the most successful political institution of the
time, served as a private school in debate, and a nursery of American
statesmen. — National Ideals Historically Traced — A. B.
The pioneer spirit. — In defining the character of America we find
one trait so strong and pronounced as to manifest itself in every period and
department of our national development — the "pioneer spirit."
Mixed motives inspired immigration to America. Regardless of why they came,
the spirit of the pioneer seemed quickly to possess them with its urgent demand
to go forth and conquer the wilderness. In that spirit the New England
pioneers, and those from the Middle Colonies and the South, peopled in
succession the States beyond the Alleghenies and the Cumberlands, advancing by
successive steps until they reached the boundaries of the continent.
The pioneer from New England and his cousins, the Scotch-Irish in Virginia
and North Carolina, loved a struggle. To them the wilderness held no terror too
great nor hardship too severe to hold them back. Life was a joyful adventure
and the dangers were enticing. Life held the stern duty of making provision for
family and posterity. Life was work, and the great forests were there to be
cleared. Life was full of promise; there were the vast free lands — theirs for
the taking. Life was the gift of God and. never forgetting, they set the stamp
of their God-fearing character upon each succeeding community, in school,
church, and local government.
People from New England, the Middle Colonies, and the South, flowed together
to form neighboring or joint communities, and thus varied the Colonial farmer
typo. This mixed population produced interesting combinations of local
government; Michigan, settled largely by New England people, set up the town
meeting ; in Illinois, first reached by southerners, the county system was
established in 1818, and later an option was allowed between town and county. —
National Ideals Historically Traced — A. B. Hart.
Tenacity of purpose. — The very compelling forces of hardship,
privation, danger, and isolation bred a spirit of unrestrained freedom which
has had a pronounced influence in forming our national character. Compelled to
rely upon individual effort in providing and protecting his means of
livelihood, the early American quickly acquired the knowledge of individual
rights and the determination to
maintain them. What was his, won by honest toil or by right of discovery, he
was ever ready to defend against all odds.
Their tenacity in what they undertook has never been surpassed by any
people, not even the Romans.
I remember that half the Plymouth colonists died the first winter, and that
in the spring, when the long waiting Mayflower sailed again homeward,
not one of the fainting survivors went with her — and I glory in that
unflinching fortitude, * * * our stiffest muscle is limp and loose beside the
unyielding grapple of their tough wills — Doctor Storrs.
This tenacity went far in possessing and saving to America the whole region
west of the Mississippi River. The future welfare of the Nation, the
preservation of representative government, and the principles for which it
stands lie largely today within the hands of the citizens of the West, for into
that section has traveled the center of our population, and there is to be
found over one-half of the descendants of our Colonial forefathers.
Experimental self-government. — Our national character is emphasized
in our ability to govern ourselves. Such ability did not develop over night;
neither can it be acquired for the asking. No other nation has attained
self-government in equal measure with the United States. The Colonies struggled
150 years before they had established a sufficient foundation to take the step
that led to the "Great Experiment."
Our present form of government would never have been possible without this
long period of preparation, involving study, experience, mistakes, and a
growing measure of success, exemplified in the wise legislation inaugurated by
several of the colonies, and in the increasing spirit of independence prior to
the War of the Revolution. Success was made possible due to the collective
fitness of the colonials for the task of self-government.
The colonial was "a good farmer, an excellent schoolmaster, a very
respectable preacher, a capital lawyer, a sagacious physician, an able editor,
a thriving merchant, a shrewd peddler, and a most industrious tradesman," able
to comprehend the full measure of human associations. Hence, with these
qualifications, when independence was won, a committee of chosen
representatives called to the arduous task of revising the Articles of
Confederation, found within themselves a collective knowledge which enabled
them to produce that document, the Constitution of the United States, which,
Mr. Gladstone said, "is the greatest piece of work ever struck off in a given
time by the brain and purpose of man."
49. Individual character. — Moral worth. — In the discussion of moral
worths, it is primarily true that we weigh and evaluate the ctions of the
individual. However, individual acts do not form a haphazard aggregate of
unrelated deeds, for back of the act are dominant principles that assure a
certain continuity in human action. With knowledge of the temperament and trend
of mind of a given man, his action under given circumstances may be fairly
predicted, due to the fact that behind the shifting play of emotions found in
the mental life of everyone there is a background of permanent emotional
associations and processes which change slowly, if at all. This stable
background of the moral life is character.
Deeds an expression of character. — Upon great impulse one may commit
an act foreign to his nature. However, in the long run of life, his deeds are
an expression of his character. We base our estimate of character upon known
performance; we catalogue the individual as good, bad, reliable, unstable,
trustworthy, worthless. His worth to society is assessed. We judge what measure
of reliance can be placed in him; how far he may be trusted; wherein lies his
weakness, and wherein his greatest strength.
Public spirit. — The secret of the remarkable progress of America in
the first 100 years of constitutional government lies in the fact that her
public-spirited men were striving to put the best into government, not to take
the most out of it.
No collective morality. — In the very nature of our Government, the
responsibility for its social, economic, and political standards rests
absolutely upon the character of its individual citizens. There can be no
collective morality, integrity, honor, that is not the sum of the principles of
the individuals of the community, State, or Nation. If the majority are
mercenary, the character of the Nation will be ruthless. If the growing
tendency to irreligious thought persists, the Nation will become
Desire for education and religion. — Desire is, perhaps, the greatest
force in the determination of individual character. It overrules the handicaps
of environment, poverty, and physical defects. It asks no favor of race, creed,
or color. It has no determinate end. Its power is to ennoble or debase — "As a
man thinketh in his heart, so is he."
The desire of our forefathers for education and religion, intensified with
each succeeding generation by the ever-increasing facilities for intellectual
development, has fixed the American character upon a high plane of moral worth
and honorable attainment.
Knowledge is being extended with a rapidity and scope never before known in
human history. By the magic of the facilities of modern communication, its
voice is carried to the uttermost coiners
of the earth, challenging the present generation to newer and greater fields
of adventure and achievement. The right to education is our heritage,
established by our forefathers, guaranteed by the law of the land, enriched by
our free institutions.
Notwithstanding this privilege illiterates form a large proportion of our
electorate. The National Education Association tells us that 4,300,000
illiterate citizens were qualified to vote in the last presidential election.
Over 4,000.000 ignorant voters, unable to read any discussion of issues or
The last census disclosed that 1,400,000 children between the ages of 7 and
13 years were not in school during the period from September 1, 1919, to
January 1, 1920.
Because of universal suffrage, the modern complexity of our national life,
and the acknowledged principles of the right of private judgment — an
open-mindedness receptive of the revelation of truth, a "thoughtful" citizenry
On the diffusion of education among the people rests the preservation and
perpetuity of our free institutions. — Daniel Webster.
Foundation of character. — The character of the individual and the
Nation is founded upon religion and education — which, united with that force
we call "will," give to every individual the means for high attainment.
Submitting yourself to these impelling influences, resourcefulness and
unconquerable energy take command. By their power you win self-mastery. The joy
of work becomes a reality. Labor is dignified by the pride of accomplishment.
Obstacles and handicaps are but a challenge to greater effort. Discipline
Religion laid the foundations of our American Government. It neither seeks
nor claims any justification for its existence save righteousness. It had its
beginning. It found its inspiration, in the religions beliefs of the men who
settled our country, made it an independent Nation, and maintained its
institutions and laws. If it is to endure it will be through the support of men
of like mind and like character. — President Coolidge. ,
Daily performance necessary. — Expressed in terms of unselfish
devotion to ideals, our attitude to others, our sense of responsibility, our
willingness to give full service, loyal cooperation, our faithfulness to each
other, and our reverence for religion, embodied in the daily performance of
every task, "character" is the greatest asset of America.
50. Physical character. — Great resources. — Napoleon asked
Talleyrand, "What is America?" To which reply was made, "It is a body without
bones." An American adds: " The bones have been developed, and they are bones
Possessed of a raw continent, millions of square miles in area, composed of
boundless prairies, vast forests, mighty rivers, great plains, and rugged
mountains, containing fertile soil, rich natural resources in minerals, timber,
and water power, the American, lacking tools, supplies, and capital, was forced
by the very nature of his task and environment to a life of hard labor, long
hours of toil, frugal living, and self-dependence with attending hardships and
dangers. Out of these combined conditions was developed a type of hardy pioneer
unequaled in the history of mankind.
Developed by pioneers. — In her commercial life America has stepped
boldly forth to the great task set before her. Slowly at first, groping her way
along great rivers and through deep forests, she began the work of conquering
the wilderness, which won as the fruit of her enterprise, first, the full
possession of this great domain, and then, for her 300 years of toil, the
greatest treasure house among the nations of the earth.
Visions become realities. — Forced to work by the very necessity of
finding the means of existence, accepting danger and hardship, privation and
suffering as a part of the task, America gave herself to creating material
Gaining strength and wisdom with succeeding years, America has builded
achievement upon achievement. No enterprise has been too great for her
aggressive spirit. Her dreams and visions have become realities by the force of
her will and the magic of her creative ability.
Spirit of improvement and invention. — Ever willing to adopt new
ideas, to develop and improve, to tear down and rebuild, to scrap the machine
of yesterday for the improved equipment of today, opportunity was never
neglected to find a better way to do a larger business.
Success possible to every citizen. — Driven first by necessity, the
joy of accomplishment became the spur to greater achievements. The way to
comfort, to competency, to wealth was open and free to every citizen, limited
alone by individual ability, courage, and determination. Out of great
opportunity, with freedom to all, there has been bred a race of men and women
of sterling character and outstanding independence.
51. Ethical character. — Confidence. — American business is based
upon the character of its people. J. Pierpont Morgan used to say he banked more
on a man's character than on his money. Character
is the basis of confidence. Confidence is the basis of credit. Credit, above
any other element, is the source of stability in commercial life. Our building
industry, amounting to hundreds of millions annually, is dependent upon
borrowed capital from the time of the first drafted plan to completion of each
structure. The vast commercial enterprises of the United States are made
possible by our system of credit based upon confidence in the integrity of the
The ethical character of our commercial relations is based upon respect for
and confidence in the nobler things of life and the unfailing observance of
High standards of commercial life. — America is a nation of
corporations. Every enterprise of any consequence is incorporated. Founders or
owners of a given business invite employee and public to share the risk and the
profit. The workingman as a shareholder is rapidly becoming a capitalist; in
number they have increased to several million and their investments are
assuming astonishing proportions. By this means, adjustments of differences
between capital and labor are becoming easier as differences arise. The
employer in recognizing the employee as a fellow man and not as a commodity
opens the door to mutual understanding and square dealing.
As a stockholder, the employee feels the interest and responsibility of a
partner. Greater attention is paid to the work, quality is improved, waste
eliminated, and profits increased to the mutual advantage of all. The fact that
labor is being less exploited and more fairly treated with each succeeding year
is not only indicative of economic evolution but also a marked evidence of the
high character common to our commercial life.
Spirit of cooperation and compromise. — One of the most encouraging
signs of continued prosperity in America is the constantly growing tendency
toward compromise and cooperation in the affairs of capital and labor, based
upon mutual confidence. Such differences as are bound to arise are, as a rule,
disposed of to the general good of all.
No class domination. — No class is permitted to dominate in America.
Public opinion, which is always representative of public character, will not
permit the assumption of power. Whether it be capital, labor, farmer, group, or
section, public character in its dominant sense of fair dealing defeats the
effort to acquire unfair advantage.
Spirit of benevolence. — Nothing is more characteristic of modern
American life than the pouring out of private wealth for public service.
Nowhere are so many philanthropic agencies at work.
There is that in American democracy which creates the spirit of public
service through gifts to the public.
In respect to aid and contributions in world disasters America is one of the
first in the field of distress and one of the last to leave.
Not materialistic. — The Old World, looking upon the intense activity
of this New World, seeing us ever engrossed in material affairs, with little
time for leisure, even making hard work of our play in our overanxiety to win
at any game, whether it be work or play, has scoffed at our lack of art,
literature, and culture and called us a nation of dollar chasers.
Our justification for our so-called gross materiality lies in the fact that
we were a new nation — new in a wilderness to be conquered; new in a land
without homes, towns, or cities, without schools or churches, without
transportation or communication. Under these circumstances there was neither
occasion nor opportunity to write music, paint pictures, or sculpture in
marble. Our music was in the sweet, sonorous song of the mighty forests and the
rushing streams; our pictures were painted daily in the mists of the morning
and the waving fields of grain. Our monuments and memorials were carved from
virgin forests, builded in great cities, in rambling farmhouses set in emerald
fields. We were kept too busy providing the necessities of life to find time
for the finer accomplishments.
Now, lasting monuments depicting the strength, the majesty, and the beauty
of our country are being erected; our large and well-kept parks are ornamented
with beautiful sculptures; our colleges, universities, and institutions of
music and art are comparable with those of any other part of the world; our
public galleries and museums possess priceless works of art.
52. Political character. — Diplomacy. — America is slowly but surely
winning the confidence of the nations of the world. The desire to arbitrate
rather than resort to armaments has distinguished America in her international
policy, desiring to adjust all differences within the principles of justice and
equity. Her commercial treaties are written in terms of square dealing. Backed
by the guaranty of the American character, her obligations and her dollars are
eagerly accepted wherever they may be offered.
What is the result of the coordination of the "varied endeavors" of our
In what manner has the spirit of cooperation influenced the development of
Upon what does the perpetuity of our fundamental principles depend?
What are the main elements in the Puritan character?
What place in our early colonial life was occupied by the "town meeting"?
What was its later influence?
State the chief characteristics of the pioneer.
Upon what is our estimate of character based?
What was the secret of our remarkable progress in the first 100 years of the
What depends upon the character of our individual citizens?
Name several factors upon which our national character is based.
Why is religion an essential characteristic of the American people?
Are all American citizens educated? Explain.
How does public education affect American political institutions?
Why, under our form of government, is a "thoughtful" citizenry
In what manner is the gospel of hard work related to the American
Upon what is the ethical character of our commercial relations based?
To what is the success of our vast commercial enterprises due?
Why is the spirit of benevolence characteristic of America?
Is America materialistic? Explain.
In what is the political character of America expressed?
SECTION IV LESSON 4. — GREAT AMERICANS AND THEIR ACHIEVEMENTS
The value of biography -------------------------------------------------
Fields of achievement ---------------------------------------------------
George Washington ------------------------------------------------------
The Nation's gratitude.
Benjamin Franklin -------------------------------------------------------
Printer, publisher, philanthropist.
Member of Constitutional Convention.
John Marshall ------------------------------------------------------------
Member of assembly.
Ratification of the Constitution.
Member of Congress.
Interpretation of the Constitution.
Declaration of Independence.
President of the United States.
Daniel Webster -----------------------------------------------------------
Tampering with the Constitution.
Reply to Hayne.
Abraham Lincoln --------------------------------------------------------
Preservation of the Union.
The nation incarnate.
The winning of the West ------------------------------------------------
Settlement of Kentucky.
George Rogers Clark ----------------------------------------------------
Lewis and Clark ----------------------------------------------------------
Claim of United States to territory established.
The new country.
Rev. Marcus Whitman ---------------------------------------------------
Sterling qualities of racial stock.
Gen John C. Frémont ---------------------------------------------------
Exploration of the Southwest.
Eli Whitney, a pioneer of modern industry --------------------------- 66
Invention of cotton gin.
Development of cotton industry.
Influence on country.
Interchangeability of mechanical parts.
Robert Fulton, a pioneer of steam navigation -------------------------
Progress in water transportation.
Samuel F. B. Morse, a pioneer of modern communication ---------- 68
Opening of the Erie Canal.
Invention of the telegraph
Appropriation from Congress.
Improvement and amplification.
Capt. John Ericsson, pioneer of the modern battleship -------------- 69
The navy and merchant marine
Maj. Walter Reed, conqueror of yellow fever ------------------------ 70
Maj. Gen. William C. Gorgas, conqueror of malaria ----------------- 71
53. The value of biography. — The history of any nation, in its ideals and
achievements, its motives and spirit, invariably reflects the character of its
leaders. The stories of the lives and accomplishments of its great men are the
windows through which is revealed the soul of the nation.
The biographies of the leaders of America should be carefully studied as the
means of best understanding the controlling factors in the development of our
country in any given period. In these stories are revealed the combat of minds,
the clash of opinions, the cunning of politicians, the ruthlessness of
self-seekers, and the saving forces of those dominant leaders who inspired the
people to follow them in the establishment of the ideals out of which have been
created the splendid achievements of our people.
In the lives of our great men are to be found the elements of righteousness,
courage, justice, unselfish devotion to duty, self-reliance, initiative, and
stubborn determination, the ingredients from which was brewed the virile,
aggressive, and generous spirit of America. With each succeeding period of our
progress in government, industry, agriculture, education, medical science, we
have had the leadership of men and women devoted to public service with little
thought of personal gain.
In this spirit our Government was established. They who had power to assume
control dared to commit that control to a free people, knowing that the ideals
of liberty, justice, and individual right had been indelibly stamped upon the
very souls of their countrymen.
In like spirit succeeding generations have responded to the call of their
leaders for the preservation of our Nation. Creative and destructive forces are
in eternal conflict. The experience of the past gives us wisdom to accomplish
the tasks of the present. Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty.
64. Fields of achievement. — The ideals and accomplishments of our great
Americans were to establish a government that was fit to be intrusted with all
the powers that a free people ought to delegate to any government as the safe
and proper depository of national interests, controlled not by the passions but
by the reason of the people, to develop the natural resources of the country,
and to open up the way of opportunity to all.
However, great Americans have not confined their achievements to the field
of government and protection of our institutions Many of the great industries,
much of medical science, communication, and transportation found first
expression in the keen minds of our pioneers. In the biographies of these men
are incidents as thrilling, full of daring, and productive of rich achievements
as are revealed in the lives of the mighty army who conquered the wilderness
and won for the United States in succession the Colonies, the Northwest
Territory, Louisiana, the Oregon country, Texas, California, and the great
55. George Washington. — This noble first citizen of America is the
outstanding character in the history of our country. From his early youth he
demonstrated those qualities of leadership which, with the experience gained in
his great achievements, made him the dominant personality of his time.
Military leadership. — At the early age of 23 years he was placed in
command of the Virginia Rangers. He became the hero of General Braddock's
ill-fated campaign against the French and Indians. After General Braddock's
failure to accept his advice, which caused his death and the defeat of his
troops, it was the superior ability of Washington which saved the British from
rout and possible annihilation. As commander in chief of the Continental Army,
he took command of a disorganized, undisciplined yet loyal body of raw
provincials. Ragged and starved, half frozen, and poorly equipped, by the force
of his character he brought them to a condition of training and discipline that
gave final success to the Colonial cause.
By the charm and strength of his personality he won the admiration and
enthusiastic support of the great German general, Von Steuben; the brilliant
Frenchman, Count de La Fayette; and the gallant Pole, Kosciusko.
Political leadership. — The conclusion of the war found General
Washington so exalted in the hearts of his countrymen as to make him the
virtual ruler of the new nation, created largely through his military genius
and indomitable will. Foregoing all personal ambitions other than that of
molding a free people into an enduring nation, he gave himself with equal
faithfulness to the work of peace and orderly government.
Serving without pay in all his public career, his life of unselfish devotion
rightfully won for him the title of "Father of His Country." When charged by an
unfriendly Congress with usurpation of power, he replied: "A character to lose,
an estate to forfeit, the inestimable blessings of liberty at stake, and a life
devoted, must be my excuse."
Inspired by the influence of his character and his qualities of
statesmanship, such men as Hamilton, Jefferson, Madison, Randolph, King,
Marshall, Monroe, and the venerable Franklin addressed themselves with him to
the task of constructing a new government, which in the following generations
was destined to become an ever-growing memorial to their wisdom and patriotic
devotion to the ideals and rights of humanity.
Farewell address. — The wisdom, sagacity, and vision of Washington
gave the United Colonies a republican rather than a democratic form of
government. In the almost inspired words of his "Farewell Address" — in the
framing of which he undoubtedly had the assistance of Alexander Hamilton and
James Madison, two of the finest minds of that period — he gave counsels
concerning the pitfalls which have destroyed other popular governments of
As far as these counsels have been observed the Nation has enjoyed peace,
prosperity, and happiness.
The Nation's gratitude. — George Washington, born February 22, 1782,
died September 14, 1799. Within the scope of his 67 years he was surveyor,
farmer, soldier, statesman, commander in chief of the Continental Army,
President of the Constitutional Convention, and twice President of the United
States of America.
More than to any other, we owe our everlasting debt of gratitude to George
Washington for American independence and the Constitution of the United
58. Benjamin Franklin. — Benjamin Franklin manifested the qualities
characteristic of the American. Genius he possessed, but it was the genius of
hard work. He was a self-made man. At the age of 17 years, he came from
Massachusetts to Philadelphia, which became his lifelong residence.
Printer, publisher, philanthropist. — A journeyman printer by trade,
he ultimately became the author and printer of Poor Richard's Almanac, a
publication of homely philosophy which contains many gems of wisdom and good
advice as applicable today as in his time. Franklin was identified with the
Pennsylvania Gazette. He founded the Saturday Evening Post, the University of
Pennsylvania, and the Philadelphia Public Library. He was the first postmaster
general of the Colonies.
Scientist. — With all these activities he still found time to devote
to science. The flash of lightning in a thunderstorm caused him to wonder
rather than to fear. In it he recognized a mightly force; his philosophic mind
concluded that in some way the flash of lightning (electricity) could be
controlled and brought into the service of mankind. It pays to think. Creative
minds, as exemplified in Franklin, rather than manual labor, have produced the
great achievements of all time.
Political philosopher. — Benjamin Franklin was too busy to be idle.
Absorbed with the affairs and welfare of the Colonies, he proposed in 1754 that
the Colonies be formed into a Union. Franklin believed that had this
proposition been accepted, a separation from the British Empire would never
have taken place. Twenty years later a call for a general congress of the
Colonies was issued by Virginia, at the instigation of Franklin, and held in
Philadelphia in May, 1774.
Benjamin Franklin took an active part in framing the Declaration of
Independence, of which he was one of the signers.
Diplomat. — Two years later he went to France, where, in fur cap and
homespun clothing, he, the typical American commoner, created a wave of
enthusiasm which won the French to the cause of the Colonies.
Member of Constitutional Convention. — At the age of 81 years this
old young-hearted philosopher took a most prominent part in the deliberations
of the constitutional convention held in Philadelphia from May to September,
1787. His wisdom and counsel often prevailed in those long and stormy sessions.
His love of country and faith in democracy gave him a vision of the future
greatness of America that few in his time possessed.
67. John Marshall. — The life work of John Marshall is intimately blended
with the Constitution. He ranked high as a soldier, legislator, diplomat,
historian, and statesman. As a jurist and magistrate, he ranks first. For 34
years he served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States,
leaving a record for constructive results in the Government of the United
States second only to that of Washington.
Soldier. — He began the study of law at the age of 18 years, but soon
left his studies to enter the Revolutionary Army. His experiences, with their
heroisms and hardships, "broadened his views and quickened his insight in
governmental questions." He said, "I entered the Army a Virginian and left it
Member of assembly. — After the war he was elected a member of the
Virginia Assembly. During his remarkable career he served in the legislature
for eight sessions. He continually emphasized his conviction that for
efficiency a strong central government was necessary.
Ratification of the Constitution. — As a member of the State
convention, in 1788, which met to discuss the ratification of the Constitution
of the United States, through the power of his convincing logic, the
ratification of the Constitution was accomplished over the determined
opposition of its enemies.
Member of Congress. — At the urgent request of Washington, he became
a candidate and was elected to Congress, where he became the greatest debater
on constitutional questions.
Interpretation of the Constitution. — In 1829, through his wisdom and
moderation, he did much to prevent radical changes in the State constitution of
Virginia, thwarting the attempts of politicians against the independence of the
judiciary. Because of his exceptional understanding of the philosophy of the
Constitution of the United States, his counsel was of prime importance.
His deep convictions and illuminating arguments contained in his decisions
concerning constitutional questions, at a period when the powers of the
Constitution were ill defined, were of inestimable value in the formation of a
well-organized Federal Government. "He made the Constitution live. He imparted
to it the breath of immortality. Its vigorous life at the present time is due
mainly to the wise interpretation he gave to its provisions during his term of
The most notable products of Marshall's unprecedented judicial career may be
summed up under two heads In the first place, he established the supremacy of
Federal law within the entire circle of its jurisdiction, no matter whether it
was opposed by the Congress or by a State legislature in the form of
unconstitutional enactments, or by the President giving "instructions not
warranted by law"; or by State supreme courts attempting to resist the mandates
of the Supreme Court; or by the governors of States attempting to resist such
mandates; in the second place, in defining the character of "the American
Constitution." — Origin and Growth of the American Constitution —
68. Thomas Jefferson. — By reason of his ability as a thinker and speaker,
Thomas Jefferson quickly gained a place of leadership, first in Virginia, then
in the Colonies, where he was constantly employed in fighting oppressive
British regulations and interference in the affairs of his country. Staunch in
his defense of the rights of the people, he caused Virginia to pass many laws
of a revolutionary character, among which was the abrogation of the rights of
nobility, entailed estates, and the absolute right of religious liberty.
Declaration of Independence. — He was a member of that famous group
which, upon call of the resolution proposed by Richard Harry Lee, wrote the
Declaration of Independence. Although the youngest, his dominant personality
and exceptional ability caused him to be chosen chairman of that committee,
which included such stalwarts as John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman,
and Robert R. Livingston. The instrument practically as written by Jefferson
was unanimously adopted to become for all time one of the immortal documents
relating to human rights and self-government.
President of the United States. — In the trying days during and
following the Revolutionary War Thomas Jefferson was a member of the
Continental Congress, Governor of Virginia, ambassador to France, succeeding
Franklin, and recalled to become Secretary of State in President Washington's
Cabinet, where he bitterly opposed the policy of Alexander Hamilton in his
endeavor to extend the powers of government over the people.
On a platform based upon his ideas and policies, he was elected the third
President of the United States as a Democratic-Republican
over his opponent, who as a Federalist espoused the principles of
Louisiana Purchase. — During the first, years of his two terms as
President, he completed the negotiations with France for the purchase of the
vast domain, over 900,000 square miles, lying west of the Mississippi River and
east of the Rocky Mountains, known as "the Louisiana Territory." The purchase
price of $15,000,000 was, at that time, considered exorbitant and created much
adverse criticism in which Jefferson was denounced as an "imperialist," and as
having forsaken his democratic principles. The reasons for this action on his
part were that he saw the advantage of gaining control of the Mississippi River
and the port of New Orleans, and that by this purchase the United States would
be left unhampered by foreign countries in developing her republican form of
Achievements. — The outstanding events of his public life are to be
found in (1) the writing of the Declaration of Independence; (2) enactment of
the statute for religious liberty; (3) founding the University of Virginia; and
(4) the purchase of the Louisiana Territory.
69. Daniel Webster. — Daniel Webster belongs to the first generation of
Americans who knew no other form of government than that established by the
Federal Constitution. So intimately is his name associated with that great
document that he has become known to history as the greatest expounder of the
Tampering with the Constitution. — When but 20 years old, he
delivered an address which contained the following:
"The experience of all ages will bear us out in saying that alterations of
political systems are always attended with a greater or less degree of danger.
The politician that undertakes to improve a constitution with as little thought
as a farmer sets about mending his plow is no master of his trade. If the
Constitution be a systematic one * * * its parts are so necessarily connected
that an alteration in one will work an alteration in all, and the cobbler,
however pure and honest his intentions, will in the end find that what came to
his hands a fair, lovely fabric goes from them a miserable piece of patchwork *
Representative government. — As a further caution against a
pronounced tendency, he declared:
"The true definition of despotism is government without law. It may exist in
the hands of many as well as one. Rebellions are despotisms, factions are
despotisms, loose democracies are despotisms. These are a thousand times more
dreadful than the concentration of all power in the hands of a single tyrant
The despotism of one man is like the thunderbolt which falls here and there,
scorching and consuming the individual on whom it lights; but popular
commotion, the despotism of the mob, is like an earthquake, which in one moment
swallows up everything. It is the excellence of our Government that it is
placed in a proper medium between these two extremes, that it is equally
distant from mobs and from thrones."
Webster clearly understood our representative form of government and the
importance of avoiding the dangerous extremes of either hereditary (autocratic)
government or direct (democratic) government.
Reply to Hayne. — Webster's replies to Hayne in the United States
Senate are considered as the greatest debate that has ever occurred in any
legislative body in the history of the world. His second reply began with the
"Mr. President, when the mariner has been tossed for many days in thick
weather and on an unknown sea he naturally avails himself of the first pause in
the storm, the earliest glance of the sun, to take his latitude and ascertain
how far the elements have driven him from his true course. Let us imitate this
prudence and before we float farther on the waves of this debate refer to the
point from which we departed that we may at least be able to conjecture where
we now are.
This indicates a wholesome state of mind with which to approach important
discussions concerning the philosophy of our Government as expressed in the
Constitution. Before we drift farther toward direct action and socialistic
tendencies, we should return in study and thought to the work of the men who
wrote the Constitution and ascertain how far we are departing from the course
therein laid down."
60. Abraham. Lincoln. — George Washington gave us the Union. Abraham Lincoln
saved the Union.
Log cabins were common in this country 100 years ago. It was not a log cabin
that gave distinction to Abraham Lincoln, although he was born in the poorest
of such cabins on February 12, 1809.
Limited education. — His honors were not conferred upon him because
of a university education. Two short terms in a Kentucky school, followed by
three in Indiana, less than a year in all, does not give much foundation for
Handicaps. — To study the life of Lincoln makes one almost believe
God purposely placed every conceivable handicap upon him just to prove his
staying qualities, and to set an example in purpose, principle, and
perseverance that would act as an inspiration for young and old possessed of
the ambition and endurance, the vision and character, necessary to success.
Abraham Lincoln was homely, yet he possessed the beauty of soul dedicated to
relieving the burdens and sorrows of humanity.
He was a rail splitter. In his rugged physical strength he was as gentle as
His was a lowly birth, yet "his spirit is the richest legacy of the United
Lawyer. — He was a "saddlebag" lawyer, yet, with a copy of
Blackstone, a Webster's Dictionary, and the fundamental law of God and human
rights in his heart and head he won his way to the respectful consideration of
With his sense of humor and ability as a story teller there was in him a
supersense of justice, and he often fitted a story to emphasize a truth that
otherwise might have been forgotten.
Preservation of the Union. — "A house divided against itself can not
stand." Upon that issue — the preservation of the Union — Abraham Lincoln was
elected President of the United States. Tolerant with all who opposed, kind to
all who hated, charitable to those who denounced, he held firmly to the single
purpose of saving the Union, in the belief that in union only could our Nation
The beauty of diction, the reverence, sympathy and love, the magnanimity and
charity, and the vision of the worth of the price paid for the preservation of
our Union, as set forth in his Gettysburg speech, will make him acclaimed after
all other orators are forgotten.
The nation incarnate. — He was the nation incarnate. In all its
struggles, its doubts, its agony, and in the solemn days of victory Abraham
Lincoln lived alone for his country.
No one man has ever rendered greater service nor paid a greater price for
faithful performance. As he has given us a rich legacy in his spirit and
example, so he has left us a great responsibility — That we highly resolve
that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this Nation, under God, shall
have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, by the people,
and for the people shall not perish from the earth.
81. The winning of the West. — In a brief space of time, 50 years, was
accomplished the stupendous task, entitled by President Roosevelt "the winning
of the West," an accomplishment made possible by the sturdy character of the
men and women who so fearlessly and laboriously carried on once they set their
faces toward tho golden West.
Accustomed to frugality and hard labor, inured to hardships and privation,
stern in self-discipline and faith, mighty in determination and self-reliance,
they not only left to posterity an inheritance of fertile land, virgin forests,
great water resources, and untold mineral wealth, but, greater than the sum of
all material gain, they passed on to this and succeeding generations the
principles and traditions of independence, liberty, and justice, an example of
the worth of clean living, high purpose, and great faith that should be an
inspiration to every loyal American.
In the original grant of charter to the several Colonies by Great Britain,
the western limits were practically undefined. Several of the Colonies claimed
territory extending westward as far as the Mississippi River and north of the
Ohio to the Great Lakes.
Northwest Territory. — In the compromises made, composing the
differences between the Colonies, it was agreed to define the western
boundaries of such Colonies to more restricted areas, dedicating the disputed
territory to the United States, to be known as the "Northwest Territory," which
at the time was occupied by French and British trading posts.
This area included what are now the States of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio,
Michigan, and Wisconsin. All territory lying west of the Mississippi River and
east of the Rocky Mountains, from the Gulf of Mexico to an undetermined
northern limit, was then a possession of Spain known as the "Louisiana
Territory," transferred by Spain to France and then sold in 1803 to the United
With the exception of a few venturesome spirits who found their way across
the mountains south of the Ohio River and as far west as the Mississippi, this
land of ours was an unknown wilderness to the settlers of the Colonies. Alive
with deer, buffalo, and small game, rich in timber, fertile of soil, watered by
numberless rivers and lakes, America at the close of the War of the Revolution
still awaited discovery.
Slow development. — The thrilling story of the winning of the West is
a series of events accomplished not by military force but rather by the efforts
of a host of hardy pioneers who, with indomitable fortitude and incredible
labor, won in succession the swamps, rolling prairies, forests, plains, rugged
mountains, and the fruitful Pacific slope.
No single individual dominated this vast domain. It was the rank and file
who conquered in this battle of the wilderness. Its conquest was not quickly
accomplished. As in all great movements, leadership was developed, with here
and there a man who became identified with some particular period or
Daniel Boone. — A native of North Carolina, born and developed tinder
conditions' that gave him physical strength and endurance beyond the average,
courage, daring, and self-reliance, he was peculiarly fitted for what he
declared to be the mission of his life — "ordained of God to settle the
wilderness." He was the highest type of wilderness explorer. Living to the age
of 86, he will continue to
live throughout the annals of our history as an outstanding type of the
earliest American. He exemplified in his life the value of clean living, high
principles, and hard labor.
Settlement of Kentucky. — Undaunted by the unknown dangers of great
swamps and forests, matching wits and woodcraft with the roving bands of
hostile Indians, he led the first group of settlers across the Blue Ridge
Mountains into the rich country of Kentucky. Here, amidst untold hardships,
privations, and danger, there was set up the beginning of what has grown to be
a mighty State, rich in natural resources and richer still in the treasure of
its manhood and womanhood, descendants of the sturdy stock of Daniel Boone and
those who followed him. These hardy pioneers bred into the succeeding
generations that strength of purpose, endurance, initiative, and determination
which has contributed so much to the richness and virility of American
62. George Rogers Clark. — Capt. George Rogers Clark saved the settlers in
Kentucky from massacre by the Indians and was the hero of the conquest of the
Northwest Territory, now represented by Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, and
Military expeditions. — He led his small force of less than 200 men
against the French outposts of southern Illinois. With their capture he turned
his attention to the British garrison at Fort Sacksville on the Wabash River at
In the capture of this fort Captain Clark and his sturdy band accomplished
one of the most difficult marches in military history. Crossing the "drowned
lands" of southern Illinois in the month of February, 1779, they carried on
through water oftentimes above their waists, without provisions or supplies
other than that carried upon their backs. Through a wilderness untraveled and
unknown by white men, this small band of backwoodsmen took the British by
surprise, demanded and received the unconditional surrender of the garrison. By
this remarkable exploit America was forever rid of foreign domination, and
title to this region was given to the United States.
His monument. — Capt. George Rogers Clark was among the greatest of
the forefathers of the mid-West. By the inspiration of his spirit, fortitude,
and courage, this handful of men acquired possession of this inland empire of
America. By acts of heroism, serving without pay, and assuming the debts
contracted in this campaign, Captain Clark magnified his devotion to his
country. The memorial to his self-sacrificing service is not to be found in
tablets or statues of bronze, but rather in the great Commonwealths that now
comprise this territory — the heart of America.
63. Lewis and Clark. — In May of 1804, Capts. Meriwether Lewis and William
Clark proceeded to St. Louis, Mo., in obedience to the following order issued
by President Jefferson by authority of Congress:
Go up the Missouri to its sources; find out, if possible, the fountains of
the Mississippi and the true position of the Lake of the Woods: cross the stony
mountains, and having found the nearest river flowing into the Pacific, go down
it to the sea.
The expedition. — Outfitting in St. Louis, Captain Lewis and Captain
Clark, with four sergeants and twenty-three privates of the Regular Army, and
an Indian interpreter, began the long, tedious journey up the swift current of
the Missouri, reaching its headwaters approximately one year later. Crossing
the Rocky Mountains, through the Bitter Root Range, they found the Clearwater
River. Proceeding down its course through exceedingly rough country to tho
Snake River, in what is now Idaho, they continued on to the Northwest to the
junction of the Snake with the lordly Columbia.
Launching their canoes upon the broad reaches of this most beautiful stream
in October, 1805, they drifted down to the Pacific Ocean, reaching their
destination November 7, one month later. Returning from there to St. Louis,
with their surveys and maps of the regions explored, they completed the
required journey in a little over two years' time.
Claim of United States to territory established. — How little was
known of the great domain secured to the United States in the purchase of the
Louisiana Territory is revealed in part by the wording of the President's
order. How much was learned and its importance to the Nation was contained in
part in the report those two intrepid Army officers gave upon their return. The
most important result obtained was the firm establishment of the claim of the
United States by overland exploration, its first claim being made through the
earlier discovery of this north Pacific country by Capt. Robert Gray, of
Boston, who sailed his ship from the Pacific Ocean up a great river in 1792,
naming it the Columbia, in honor of the three hundredth anniversary of the
discovery of America by Columbus.
The new country. — The Lewis and Clark expedition gave the people
their first idea of the vast area, enormous natural resources, and grandeur of
the Pacific Northwest. They were the forerunners of what soon became a mighty
host of emigrants into the land of the setting sun.
64. Rev, Marcus Whitman. — Thirty years after the Lewis and Clark expedition
Rev. Marcus Whitman packed all his earthly possessions in a wagon and, with his
bride, trekked across the plains
and mountains, over what became known as the Oregon Trail, to the Walla
Walla country as a missionary to the Indians. Impressed with the beauty and
richness of the country, he seemed to have lost sight of his special mission,
as seven years later he took the trail back to civilization, there to urge his
countrymen to follow him in the possession of this new land.
Western emigration. — Acting as guide for this band of emigrants,
recruited largely in New England, he led them ever westward in the all but
impossible journey of nearly 4,000 miles. The story of the hardships and
perils, the labor, sickness, and starvation, the fight with Indians and nature,
serves again to prove the sturdiness, self-reliance, and courage of the
pioneers of America.
Sterling qualities of racial stock. — Every advancing step in the
progress of our Nation emphasizes the sterling qualities of the racial stock
that, handed down to succeeding generations, has given the urge and the will to
do, the fruits of which are today enjoyed by a prosperous and happy
Boundary adjustment. — These men and women, who so bravely followed
Whitman over the Oregon Trail, saved that great country to the United States.
The cry in 1846 was "The British must go — The whole of Oregon or none — 54-40
or fight." In the spirit of fair play and justice, the differences with Great
Britain were adjusted, the boundaries were fixed, and another great step in the
expansion and settlement of our Nation was accomplished.
85. Gen. John C. Frémont. — As a junior officer of the United States Army,
at the age of 29 years, Frémont was designated by the Secretary of War to
explore a route from western Missouri to the "South Pass."
Exploration of the Southwest. — In accomplishing his mission he
followed the Arkansas River to its source in the Rocky Mountains. On a later
expedition he made his way through Utah to the Great Salt Lake and then through
the deserts of Nevada and across the Sierra Nevada, where he found his journey
leading through the mammoth trees and along the roaring torrents of the
California country, reaching the Mexican city of Monterey, some 130 miles south
of San Francisco on the Pacific Ocean.
Mexican War. — Through exercise of diplomacy he was able to remain in
this vicinity until after the outbreak of the Mexican War, when he headed a
revolt against that Government and freed the territory of California from
Mexican authority, becoming the governor of the territory which was ceded to
the United States by treaty following the conclusion of the war with
A contemporary. — Contemporary with Frémont, another brilliant young
Army officer, Colonel Kearney (afterwards brigadier general), fought his way
across the plains of Texas to Santa Fe, N. Mex., and after its capture
continued across the deserts of New Mexico, Arizona, and southern California to
a union of his small army with Frémont in California.
Territorial acquisition. — As a result of the splendid work of these
men coupled with the success of Generals Scott and Taylor in old Mexico, there
was added to the domain of the United States the last of the great southwestern
area, a territory of nearly 1,000.000 square miles, a section of our country
which within one year thereafter became the goal of the adventurous spirits of
the world due to the discovery of fabulous gold deposits along many of the
water courses flowing to the Pacific Ocean from the western slopes of the
mountains bordering eastern California.
66. Eli Whitney, a pioneer of modern industry. — Invention of cotton
gin. — A school-teacher from Massachusetts living in Georgia in 1793
invented a machine called the cotton gin, by use of which a negro could easily
clean 300 pounds of cotton a day, demonstrating thereby, as no previous
invention had done, the value of machinery in replacing or augmenting manual
labor. The whole question of cotton production and cotton manufacture was
changed through the use of this invention.
Previous to the invention of the cotton gin, cotton yarns were spun and
woven into cloth by hand in private homes. Necessarily, by this slow method of
manufacture, but small quantities of cotton were used.
Development of cotton industry. — So rapid was the development of the
industry, stimulated by this new "gin," that within the next 20 years exports
of cotton to Liverpool increased tenfold.
As a result of this invention a cotton factory was erected in Massachusetts
to produce cloth like that made in England. Here was constructed the first loom
operated by water power in America. In 1814 there was builded at Waltham,
Mass., the first cotton mill in the world, in which the raw material direct
from a Whitney cotton gin was spun into thread, woven into cloth, and printed
with colors, all under one roof.
Influence on country. — The production of cotton was stimulated and
made one of the leading industries of the country. Cotton exports enormously
increased; allied industries developed; communities grew rapidly into
The invention of the cotton gin created unforeseen social, economic, arid
political conditions; it largely put a stop to the discussion of slavery; the
southern planters and northern manufacturers of cotton found it to their mutual
interest to keep the negro in bondage, since by his labor they were rapidly
Due to climatic conditions the manufacture of cotton goods was carried to
New England, thus opening a new channel of employment, causing in following
years a radical change in the nationality of the citizens of these Northern
Interchangeability of mechanical parts. — While Whitney was the
inventor of the cotton gin, because of the theft of his model and tools from
the shed in which he conducted his experiments, he was not enabled to perfect
He instituted the interchangeability of parts which has greatly influenced
modern industry. In 1798 he secured a contract from the Government for the
manufacture of firearms, being "the first to effect the division of labor by
which each part was made separately." It was from this invention that he made
67. Robert Fulton, a pioneer of steam navigation. — It is proper and fitting
to designate Robert Fulton as the pioneer of modern transportation by reason of
his success in driving the Clermont in the year 1807, against the
current of the Hudson River from New York City to Albany.
Other inventors. — It is true that no less than eight men had at
various times and places propelled boats by steam power prior to this
accomplishment by Robert Fulton, yet none of them carried out their experiments
to a successful issue.
Fulton's success was largely due to his cleverness and ingenuity coupled
with the fortunate circumstance of a partnership formed with Robert Livingston,
a man of wealth, also interested in solving the problem of steam
Legislative grant. — Livingston was so sure of final success through
his own various experiments as to induce the Legislature of the State of New
York to pass a bill granting exclusive right to navigate the waters of that
State by steam power upon condition that a boat of 20 tons be driven by steam
at a minimum speed of 4 miles an hour against the current of the Hudson, this
feat to be accomplished within one year from the date of grant. He failed in
his effort. Later ho was appointed minister from the United States to
The "submarine". — In 1803, while in Paris, Fulton demonstrated his
"submarine" in the River Seine. Encouraged by the success of this experiment,
Fulton and Livingston ordered a steam engine from Watt & Boulton in
England, to be shipped to America, where Fulton found it on his return in
The "Clermont." — In the following year the Clermont was built
and launched in East River. Its successful trip opened the way to a complete
revolution of water transportation. Within the next few years, so rapid was the
adoption of this new method of travel, steamboats came into use upon the
principal rivers and the Great Lakes, rendering splendid assistance in
establishing easy communication between distant sections of our country
traversed by the great waterways.
Progress in water transportation. — To fully appreciate the value of
tho contribution made by Fulton and Livingston to the economic development and
enrichment of America, one has only to review the remarkable progress made in
water transportation, contrasting the present accomplishments with those of 100
Through his vision, patience, and persistence he found success where others
had failed, and in so doing opened the way to the rapid development of this
mighty agency in the advance of civilization.
68. Samuel F. B. Morse, a pioneer of modern communication. — Without our
present facilities of communication, modern civilization could not continue.
Deprived of telegraph, telephone, and radio, the wheels of industry would be
stopped and the economic welfare of nations destroyed. We can not too greatly
emphasize this benefaction conferred upon all people through the accomplishment
•of Samuel Morse and the brilliant men who followed him with improvements upon
his basic invention, the telegraph.
Opening of the Erie Canal. — Morse trained himself to think. Of all
the thousands whose attention was engaged by the opening of the Erie Canal in
1825, he alone caught the significance of the passage of time in relaying the
message heralding that event. The signal was delivered by cannon placed at
intervals between Buffalo and New York City, the successive reports of which,
conveyed from one emplacement to the next, consumed one and a half hours of
time in delivering the message a distance of 500 miles.
Invention of the telegraph. — Reason and logic compelled him to
believe that electricity made to travel many miles over a copper wire in an
instant of time could by some method be interrupted in its passage so as to
produce certain signals susceptible of interpretation.
Busy in his profession as an artist in London, Italy, France, and at home,
the idea of the control of electricity ever persisted in his mind. With the
passage of years his patience was rewarded with the invention of a crude
telegraphic instrument and a system of dot and
dash signals to be used therewith. Forming a partnership with Alfred Vail,
they labored together in the perfection of the device until their funds were
Appropriation from Congress. — Undismayed, their persistent appeal to
Congress for assistance was finally rewarded with an appropriation of $80,000
for the erection of a telegraph line a distance of 40 miles between the cities
of Baltimore and Washington. With the completion of its construction, on the
morning of May 24, 1844, in the presence of the chief officers of the
Government, in the Supreme Court room of the Capitol, Professor Morse,
operating the key of his instrument, successfully transmitted to the wonder of
all present that first and memorable message, "What hath God wrought?"
Improvement and amplification. — Morse was a man of vision. He
predicted the day when telegraph lines would span the earth and bridge the
seas, yet even his far-seeing mind could never have encompassed the stupendous
results which have come from his creation as a rich boon to all mankind.
Men great in scientific accomplishments have followed with improvements and
amplifications upon his invention. Alexander Bell and associates applied his
principle in perfecting the telephone; Thomas Edison improved the technique as
telegraph operator and inventor, following his own powers of deduction into
still broader fields. Marconi and others enriched his creative efforts in the
field of wireless communication. Each passing year witnesses other improvements
and accomplishment, all a living testimonial to Samuel Morse, the man of
vision, who, standing apart from the crowd, sold himself to a great idea,
persisted against all odds until his efforts were crowned with success.
69. Capt. John Ericsson, pioneer of the modern battleship. — John Ericsson,
a native of Sweden, directed his inventive genius to improvements in steam
navigation. He claimed the invention of the screw propeller but was unable to
Coming to the United States in 1839, he built the first screw propeller
warship, the Princeton. This was the first steamship ever constructed
with her boilers and engines below the water line, and was the beginning of the
steam marine of the world.
The "Monitor." — Ericsson would probably have remained unknown to the
nation at large had it not been for his achievement during the Civil War. Using
the revolving turret patents of Theodore Ruggles Timby, he combined a structure
with all machinery below the water line, leaving the turrets alone exposed to
attack. This small vessel, known as the Monitor, called in derision "The
Yankee Cheese-Box," in its victory over the Merrimae made Ericsson
famous in a day.
The navy and merchant marine. — This caused a revolution in naval
development among the world powers, increasing the effectiveness of fighting
ships, thereby greatly strengthening the offensive and defensive forces of
nations in proportion to their naval tonnage.
Through the genius of John Ericsson, the modern navy and merchant marine has
become one of the greatest factors in the development and security of
70. Maj. Walter Reed, conqueror of yellow fever. — Maj. Walter Reed, a
surgeon in the United States Army, conducted a long series of experiments in
Cuba and discovered the source of yellow fever to be in the Stigomyia mosquito.
The dream of his youth had been to bo permitted to alleviate in some degree the
sufferings of humanity, and all his efforts, without a thought of self, were
spent in striving toward this goal. Within a few months after this discovery,
Havana, which had been ravaged by this disease for more than 150 years, was
cleared of the disease.
71. Maj. Gen. William C. Gorgas, conqueror of malaria. — Through the efforts
of Maj. Gen. William C. Gorgas, who was in command of the medical and sanitary
organizations of the United States Army in Panama, this pestiferous district
was converted into a healthy region. The French enterprise on the Isthmus of
Panama was completely wrecked by the fevers common to that region; 75 per cent
of the employees from France died from the disease within a few months after
they had landed on the Isthmus. As a result of the intensive efforts of Doctor
Gorgas the situation was conquered and Panama has become one of the healthiest
spots on the continent.
What is the value of biography?
What in general were the ideals and accomplishments of the great
Describe briefly the influence of George Washington on the Nation.
Who was Benjamin Franklin and in what way did he influence the development
of the country?
In what way did John Marshall contribute to national welfare?
What advantages did Thomas Jefferson secure for the United States by making
the Louisiana Purchase?
Against what modern movements did Daniel Webster counsel?
To what principal task did Abraham Lincoln set himself?
Who was Daniel Boone, and what did he accomplish?
As the result of the expedition of Capt. George Rogers Clark in the
Northwest Territory, what States were added to the Union? What was achieved by
the expedition of Lewis and Clark?
How did the efforts of the Rev. Marcus Whitman terminate in reference to the
Who was Gen. John C. Frémont and of what value were his services?
Who were the real conquerors of the West?
What were the main steps in our national development accomplished by
far-seeing American statesmen?
What principal changes were brought about by Whitney's invention of the
What was Whitney's greatest invention? Why?
What were the principal contributions of Robert Fulton in modern
Who invented the telegraph?
Who improved and amplified this invention?
For what are we indebted to Capt. John Ericsson?
Who made the discovery that stopped the ravages of yellow fever the world
Who eradicated tropical anemia and malignant malaria from Panama?
SECTION V LESSON 5. —
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA
The colonial spirit -------------------------------------------------------
Colonists largely representative ----------------------------------------
A continent to conquer --------------------------------------------------
Chief pursuits, agriculture and seafaring.
The federation of the colonies ------------------------------------------
Encouraged by constitutional provisions ------------------------------
The money clause.
The post-office clause.
The commerce clause.
The taxing clause.
The naturalization clause.
Fixed terms of office.
Free land and opportunity ----------------------------------------------
Influence of the Civil War ----------------------------------------------
Need for cheap labor.
The new immigration.
Citizen control -----------------------------------------------------------
Adaptation to abnormal conditions ------------------------------------
Labor advancement ------------------------------------------------------
Mass production and high wages -------------------------------------- 83
Steady employment ------------------------------------------------------
Intensive efforts of industry --------------------------------------------
The rreditor Nation ------------------------------------------------------
Production the basis of wealth and wages ---------------------------- 87
Mechanized industry -----------------------------------------------------
Higher self-appreciation -------------------------------------------------
Employee becomes employer ------------------------------------------- 90
High standards of living -------------------------------------------------
Ability to purchase.
Is America worth saving? -----------------------------------------------
72. The colonial spirit. — Three hundred years ago America was a wilderness.
Her total white population consisted of a few hundred men, women, and children,
established in several small communities along the Atlantic seaboard. For the
most part they were a Godfearing people, led to America by the vision of a new
land in which they could work out ideals and visions inspired by their deep
religious convictions. Along with these groups were others of more
worldly persuasion, who came in the spirit of adventure or to escape
political conditions, which, in the changing reign of the rulers of England,
made their move advisable.
73. Colonists largely representative. — As a whole the colonists were
largely representative of the life, thought, and aspirations of that period;
they were not supermen and women any more than they were of the vicious type.
They were moved by the impulses common to humanity, chief of which is always
that of self-preservation.
74. A continent to conquer. — Here they found a vast and unknown continent
in the possession of roving tribes of Indians; a wilderness of great forests,
mighty rivers, and boundless prairies. Their's for the taking, if they
possessed the ability and courage to conquer the all but insurmountable
obstacles and dangers.
Limited facilities. — Forced by lack of any other means than those
contained in hand and brain; lacking all facilities of communication,
transportation, or manufacture, other than such contrivances as the sailing
vessel, the ax, spinning wheel, wooden plow, and flint-lock rifle, their
progress in the first 150 years was necessarily slow and restricted.
Chief pursuits, agriculture and seafaring. — The colonists labored
under the burden of heavy restrictions imposed by the mother country which
prevented the establishment of home industries. As their first occupation they
engaged in tilling the soil that they might have food and clothing.
During her first 150 years of existence, America grew to be a people of some
3,000,000 souls and was forced to confine her development to agriculture and
seafaring pursuits. Building up a seafaring trade, she transported the raw
material of the new land to England, France, Holland, and Spain, there to be
exchanged for the necessities of life not produced by their own handicraft.
75. The federation of the colonies. — Industrial progress came with the
establishment of the new Nation, "The United States of America." Lacking
capital, other than that of character, courage, and concentrated labor, the
bankrupt colonies were welded into a union of action which has led our Nation
by successive stages to its present attainments, the marvel and wonder of
76. Encouraged by constitutional provisions. — In the Government set up
under the Constitution provision was made for a freedom of action which gives
full play to every citizen in the exercise of his rights and powers. The wisdom
of the law of our land is emphasized with each passing year. The remarkable
economic development of America is based upon the liberties and restrictions
granted as the equal right of all her citizens. Outstanding among these
The money clause. — The money clause establishes credit through the
sole power vested in the Federal Government to coin money, incur national
obligations through issue of bonds or notes of indebtedness, establishment of
our national bank, and later our Federal reserve bank system, forbidding any
State from incurring financial obligations with foreign powers or other
The post-office clause. — The post-office clause, through which
communication is regulated between the States and with the world at large, is a
duty alone of the National Government. In this clause are found the rules and
regulations governing mail, telegraph and telephone lines, and the radio.
Strict regulations hold all accountable for matter transmitted by mail, as to
its truthful or fraudulent character; rates are fixed by the Government with
equal application to all.
The commerce clause. — The commerce clause set up an agency of
exceptional worth by reason of the freedom granted in interstate traffic, the
elimination of barriers, duties, or restrictions which might otherwise be
created in exchange, sale, and shipment from State to State. Citizens of any
State have equal rights as citizens of the United States, subject only to such
local laws as apply to all citizens of the State within which business is
The taxing clause. — The taxing clause permits taxes to be levied for
the requirements of government only; such taxes to be uniform in application
and subject to revision as necessity governs.
The naturalization clause. — The naturalization clause establishes
one class of citizens only; with equality to all and privilege to none. Under
this and the immigration acts our Nation is assured a strength and unity of
purpose and action and an equality of citizenship that could not otherwise be
Fixed terms of office. — Fixed terms of office: Our system of
government by which definite terms of office are assured gives stability to
business in the fact that in no crisis can an administration be overthrown in a
day, through dissolution of Congress or the resignation of the Cabinet. Parties
may rise and fall without serious effect upon our economic life.
77. Free land and opportunity. — Other important factors in our economic
development were free land and diversified natural resources. In these America
has been particularly blessed. Lack of capital prevented none from making
progress in America. For
the first 250 years the immigrant to our shores knew that the door of
opportunity was wide open. Landing with barely enough money to pay
transportation to this chosen destination, and with no hindrance other than
that of being a stranger in a new country, both land and employment were to bo
had for the asking.
Westward Ho! — Through the liberality of our Government and the vast
and areas open for settlement there was established and developed the largest
and richest agricultural territory now under cultivation in the world. For
nearly 100 years following the War of Independence the cry was "Westward Ho!"
By families and by groups the creaking ox-drawn schooners wended their way
slowly toward the setting sun. Driving the Indians and wild game before them,
they cut the forest, broke the sod, planted, harvested, built home, school,
church, and town, preparing the way for tho next step in our progress — the
78. Influence of the Civil War. — Before any great railroad development had
taken place the peaceful life of our country was interrupted by the Civil War.
It is questionable if that struggle, with its frightful loss of life and
treasure, would ever have taken place had railroads been constructed linking
the North and the South. In 1860 there were only some 30,000 miles of railroad
in America, nearly all of which ran east and west, by reason of the fact that
our great rivers flow from the north to the south, and our railroads could not
then compete with river transportation. In 1860 no railroad was built farther
west than the Mississippi River. West of that stream the country was almost
entirely given over to the great herds of buffalo and roving Indians.
With the close of the Civil War the impetus given industry by the necessity
of making war materials, the development of steel, and a growing appreciation
of the value of rail transportation caused a marked advance in our economic
life. Tho acquaintance of masses of men from every section of tho country and
the close ties formed by their association through the war added its force to
the awakening of a new era.
79. Capital control. — Capital saw great opportunity for profit through
development of our vast natural resources. Foreign capital was attracted.
Combinations were formed. These groups were able to obtain concessions and
rights, quickly developing a power of control over industry which placed in the
hands of a comparative few the economic life of America.
Need for cheap labor. — With capital consolidated, only labor was
required for this exploitation of our natural resources. America was too vast
in area and too small in population to furnish the labor. By then-existing
immigration laws the doors were open — the world might enter. Capital needed
labor, and it must be cheap labor.
The new immigration. — "The man with the hoe" was invited and urged
to find in free America his great opportunity. He came by thousands, then tens
and hundreds of thousands.
The former class of immigrant had come to America to take up land and become
farmers and builders of homes and communities. They were followed by the
thousands who worked in the noise and sweat of our great steel mills, in our
coal mines, and in the factories which quickly built up within our cities large
congested areas, with great sections almost entirely composed of single
nationalities. Labor was exploited, voted, worked, or left unemployed.
80. Citizen control. — Following the war with Spain in 1898 a change was
inaugurated. Led by far-seeing men who recognized the danger to our free
Government in the increasing power of capital, the people developed a system of
control through Congress which broke or checked its combinations. Industry had
greatly developed during this period. Wealth had been amassed as never before.
Yet (he economic life of America had suffered — equality of opportunity was
largely restricted and classes with intense class hatred were created.
81. Adaptation to abnormal conditions. — In 1917 there came a national
emergency. One class alone — the "American citizen" — took precedence. America
astounded the world with her ability to adapt herself to abnormal conditions,
converting her peacetime factories and equipment to war-time requirements.
82. Labor advancement. — During the World War the wage earner learned to put
his excess money into Liberty bonds. He caught the idea of investment, acquired
the habit of systematic saving, discovered the strength that lies in
consolidating the small savings of the many. He began to understand the meaning
of capital, lost his fear of it, and found a way to have a part in its
83. Mass production and high wages. — The conclusion of the war found
America committed to mass production, mass cooperation, and mass saving. These
were some of the blessings that accrued out of the hell of war. Industry
awakened to the astonishing fact that high wages to labor increased rather than
diminished profits, by the simple process of increasing the buying power of
millions of employed.
84. Steady employment. — Industry learned the value of steady employment. It
sought ways of regulating production to give work
the year around. Seasonal employment ate up savings, weakened buying power,
destroyed credit, increased cost of production caused by idle equipment and
85. Intensive efforts of industry. — Industry set up research bureaus,
stimulated inventors, chemists, and scientists to greater efforts in a search
for better machines and methods, the elimination of waste in materials, and in
developing by-products therefrom. Through these intensive efforts production
per man power has been largely increased, new products created, markets
enlarged, and industry stimulated.
86. The creditor Nation. — In the earlier history of American industry
foreign capital was invested by millions of dollars in our great enterprises.
We were a debtor Nation. Today we are the creditor Nation.
87. Production the basis of wealth and wages. — There is no actual
wealth in materials, metal, or money until they are adjusted to the use, needs,
or wants of mankind. Production is the basis of wealth.
In no other country do wages approach the sum paid the individual workman of
America. The contributing factors to this highly satisfactory situation are
summed up in the word "production." American production per man power ranges
from two and one-half to thirty times that of other nations.
88. Mechanized industry. — Industry in America is mechanized and specialized
to a degree not approached by any other country. Our automatic labor-saving and
power-driven machinery is the wonder of Europe. Our mass production, made
possible by special machinery and highly trained operators, astounds the world
with its magnitude, quality, and low cost.
89. Higher self-appreciation. — Modern methods of industry discipline the
lazy, wasteful, and disloyal workmen; speed up production; work out short cuts;
improve quality; and eliminate waste; thereby contributing largely to lower
costs through greater efficiency. At the same time there is engendered a higher
appreciation in the employee of his worth to himself, his employer, and his
90. Employee becomes employer. — A keener sense of pride awakens ambition, a
quickened intellect inspires study, a broader view of life reveals opportunity,
creates hew desires expressed in higher living standards and a rapidly growing
participation in industry as a partner through purchase of stock in different
enterprises. Through quickened intelligence and systematic saving, the employee
of today becomes the employer of to-morrow. At a dinner in New York given in
1927 to a group of British workers investigating American industry, every
American captain of industry present save one came up from the overall
91. High standards of living. — Human needs are few by comparison with human
wants. Were it not for ever-increasing desires for the comforts, conveniences,
and luxuries of life, modern industry would be unable to sustain itself.
Civilization is the result of human demands, the combination of spiritual and
material aspirations. In no other nation have these aspirations been so fully
The standard of living established by any group or nation is based upon the
distribution of wealth. The closer together we bring the extremes of wealth and
poverty, the higher the attainments and general welfare of the people.
Ability to purchase. — Power of consumption is based upon the ability
to purchase and pay for the desired commodities. In America the employee
receives 72 per cent and the employer 28 per cent of the income of industry,
constituting a range of wealth distribution which fixes our living standards at
the highest point known in the world.
92. Is America worth saving? — The remarkable development of American
industry has proven beneficial to all — not only to employer and employee, but
also to the world.
America has amassed unbelievable wealth which is being spent for the good of
mankind. In its large range of distribution it has fixed our standards of
living at the highest point known to civilization.
We may therefore answer — Yes! America is well worth saving!
What facilities for economic development were available to the early
What were their chief pursuits? Explain.
In what manner did the Government, set up under the Constitution, encourage
Name other important factors in our economic development.
Describe the impetus given to our industries by the Civil War.
What led to the demand for "cheap labor"?
In what way did "the new immigration" compare with the colonists?
How did the people control industry?
Explain America's adaptation to abnormal conditions during the World
Describe the benefits to labor through high wages and steady employment.
How do research bureaus aid industry?
What is meant by the "creditor nation"?
Upon what does prosperity depend? Explain.
Is mechanized industry beneficial to the people?
How do modern methods of industry affect labor?
What are some of the benefits of mechanized industry?
How do America's standards of living compare with those of other
What is the range of wealth distribution in America?
What conditions and qualities have made possible the creation of the great
wealth of America?
What can you do to assist in the further economic development of
Is America worth saving? Why?
SECTION VI LESSON 6. — INDIVIDUAL INITIATIVE
Mankind a mass of individual ego -------------------------------------
Two forms of government ----------------------------------------------
Collectivistic government -----------------------------------------------
"Equality of condition."
Denial of personal rights.
Confiscation of private property.
Abolition of the family.
Individualistic government ---------------------------------------------
"Equality of opportunity."
Right to private property.
Protection to home and family.
Respect for religion.
An American institution -------------------------------------------------
Constitutional guaranties ------------------------------------------------
Aristocracy of brains ----------------------------------------------------
The four I's -------------------------------------------------------------
The price of success ----------------------------------------------------
Ideals. The citizen's privilege
93. Mankind a mass of individual ego. — Psychology and social science have
discovered that mankind is made up of a mass of individual ego, each revealing
similar characteristics of instincts, idiosyncrasies, and manifestations of
selfish interests — in the control of which his intelligence has developed
forms of government.
From earliest childhood self-assertion, self-determination,
self-preservation manifest themselves.
It is human nature for the strong to take advantage of the weak, whether it
be strength of body, strength of mind, or strength of a
group; that group may be a minority in numbers, yet all-powerful by reason
of the forces under its control.
The chief purpose of government is that of controlling this instinct and
directing it into channels through which society will gain the greatest
94. Two forms of government. — One form of government gives the State the
supreme control and places all its citizens upon a common level of "equal
condition''; the other recognizes the rights of the individual as greater than
the government, and emphasizes the superiority of "equality of opportunity" in
contrast with "equality of condition."
95. Collectivistic government. — "Equality of condition". — In this
system of government stress is laid upon the proposition that "all men are
created equal," meaning that no man has a right to that which is denied to
another; that any system of government failing to recognize and conform to this
"ideal" is wrong, and therefore an enemy of society and a foe of mankind.
The ignorant, illiterate, physically and mentally deficient, the lazy,
improvident, and reckless have equal right with the alert, aggressive, busy,
educated, high-minded, orderly citizen who aspires to the best and is willing
to pay the price of attainment through self-discipline, hard work, and careful
It is not in human nature to recognize "equality of condition" except to
acquire a personal advantage. One may be willing to divide another's property
with the third and fourth individual providing the share remaining to him is
something more than he formerly possessed.
Denial of personal rights. — "Collectivism" is the denial of personal
rights. The State (community) becomes the chief concern of all. It claims that
the "law of equality," once applied, would destroy every human desire for
individual dominance, making society safe, content, comfortable, and happy.
This "ideal" is to be accomplished by the application of force under the
direction of leaders, in the selection of whom the people will have little or
no choice. It is necessary, at first, to enforce the will of community
interests until the people become educated and submissive to the new order.
Denied all personal rights "collectivism" gives its "instructions'' where to
live, where to work, what to do, what to think, and what to say. for the State
is the law.
Confiscation of private property. — "Collectivism" declares that the
possession of property has developed protection of property through
governments, courts, police power, and public opinion, making it difficult for
one to acquire private property except by work. Private property must be
abolished so that all will live on a plane of "equal condition." As a matter of
fact, however, "human nature" will see to it that the "equal condition" will
very quickly become an equal condition of misery, want, and discontent.
Religion outlawed. — The collectivistic government proceeds against
"imperialism" by outlawing the church. The church at the behest of capital "fed
the people the opium of religion," making them willing slaves to do the will of
their capitalistic masters. In the interest of the new order there must be left
no place for religion, lest the people gain courage to throw off the yoke of
their new-found freedom.
Abolition of the family. — With personal rights, private property,
and tho church abolished, to make subjection complete "the state" declares that
in pure "collectivism" there can be no family ties, for children, like all
other property, are an asset of the community and must be robbed of family love
and obligation as a necessary step to loyalty to the state. Marriage may be
practiced if conscience insists, but is not demanded in the interest of the new
society, for with the abolishment of personal rights, private property, church,
and home, society no longer possesses a moral, ethical, or spiritual code.
"Socialism" kills. — The doctrine of "socialism" is "collectivism."
It tears down the social structure, weakens individual responsibility by
subjection to or reliance upon the state in all material, social, and political
matters. It compels the thought that at his best man is no better than the
worst; he loses his self-respect and his keener sense of moral and ethical
values. Ambition is nullified by restriction of choice in occupation and reward
of attainment. Initiative, the very backbone of all progress, is smothered in
the morass of impersonal service, mass servility, and mob inertia.
"Socialism" aims to save individuals from the difficulties or hardships of
the struggle for existence and the competition of life through calling upon the
state to carry the burden for them.
"Equality of condition," the ruling law of "collectivism," is the death
knell alike to individual liberty, justice, and progress through the
destruction of individual and national character.
When the citizens of a nation, seeking comforts and pleasures, find no joy
or satisfaction in hard work, the years of that nation are numbered. Free bread
and the circus marked the declining days of Rome. A surfeit of food, clothes,
comfortable homes, and much time
for idleness can easily become the first step to the overthrow of
96. Individualistic government. — "Equality of opportunity" —
"Equality of opportunity" carries with it the absolute right of every man to
keep what is his own. There can be no confiscation of property without due
process of law and just recompense to the rightful owner. Upon this foundation
have been based most of the great accomplishments of the past as well as
assurance for still greater achievements.
Right to private property. — Each citizen enjoys the right to private
property. Granted the privilege of working for one's self ambition is fired,
initiative is encouraged, labor is not restricted, and the hard thinker and
hard worker gets the reward denied the lazy and indifferent, creating thereby
classes, caste, poverty, and wealth.
Economic freedom. — The individualistic form of government, promotes
and guards the individual amid the difficulties and hardships of his struggle
for existence and in the competitions of life.
The workman is protected because the nation needs his labor and the employer
is protected because the nation needs his industry.
The productive power of free initiative has full play and a sure reward.
Under its protection he finds joy and satisfaction in the fruits of his labor.
There is incentive to invention, improvement, and the establishment of families
Political rights. — It protects the citizen in his personal freedom.
Equal political rights are assured. He has a voice in the Government which is
"of the people, for the people, and by the people."
When a people are free to undertake things and take advantage of the
opportunities open to them wealth, character, and national strength are
Protection to home and family. — The social unit of civilization is
the family. Under this form of government the institution of marriage and the
rights of childhood are respected, the home and the family are protected, and
womanhood is inviolable.
Respect for religion. — The "individualistic" form of government
believes in the exercise of religious freedom and shows tolerance toward and
respect for all religious beliefs.
The American Government rests upon the deep religious convictions of her
people. If it is to continue it will be through unceasing respect for and
confidence in the nobler things of life.
97. An American institution. — In the governments of the Old World,
conditions which built up a fixed caste system and created an impassable
barrier between certain groups of society gave exceptional advantages to the
favored and denied to the masses all but a bare existence.
The early settlers of America, who came to escape the oppression of this
order of society, at first incorporated into the local governments of the
Colonies the policy of religious intolerance and class rule. It required 150
years of local experiment in colonial government before the inalienable rights
of mankind were sufficiently understood and evaluated to develop the necessary
public opinion and power to change the prevailing form of "State" government to
that of a "Republican" form, under which "equality of opportunity" became an
"Individualism," an experiment in government, was unknown prior to the
independence of America, and has proved its worth by its marked
It tolerated no restriction, recognized no exceptions, and demanded that the
son of the farmer or frontiersman have the some opportunity as the son of the
merchant prince or land-owning aristocrat.
98. Constitutional guaranties. — The American citizen knows that he and his
children may attain any goal to which intelligence, courage, and ability may
lead. No overlord will ever bother or hinder their advancement. No succession
to power or property is vested in titles of nobility to be transmitted through
succeeding generations to favored families. The rich of today may be the wage
earners of to-morrow, while the story of the rise of the exceedingly poor to
affluence and power is as common as it is true.
The young American's future depends upon himself. He may inherit a fortune;
his sense and ability alone will enable him to keep it. He may be born in the
cabin of the miner or the shack of the mountaineer, yet if within him there
burns the unquenchable fires of ambition, courage, and indomitable will there
are none who may stop him on the road to success.
No person shall * * * be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due
process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just
compensation. — Constitution of the United States.
99. Aristocracy of brains. — The only aristocracy that America will ever
recognize is that of "brains" — "the tools to him who can handle them." The
tribute in honor and the reward in wealth accorded to brains in this land of
opportunity are not equaled in any other country. Brains ask for no "equality
of condition," want only "equality of opportunity."
100. The four "I's." — Socially, economically, politically, the world is
rapidly changing and in its evolution it requires for its
leadership men of individuality, independence, initiative and
Individuality. — Under the guaranties given by the Constitution there
has been developed in the American character a striking individuality, which
stamps him an American wherever he may be found. It is that quality which
inspired him to the conquest of the great American wilderness and the
development of her resources. The urge of individuality has driven him in every
undertaking not only for pecuniary reward but for the equal reward of stamping
his achievement with his own personality. This distinctive bearing of the
American commands attention and wins the confidence of all.
Conscious of his own strength, he asks no other favor than equal
opportunity. When he marries he seeks no dower with his bride. He accepts his
place in life with dignity born in the consciousness of his own power to better
it. Be it ever so humble, his home is marked with his personality. His children
bear the impress of his character, giving assurance that life can contain no
difficulties too great for them to master. His is the consciousness of the free
born, whether born in the crowded tenement of a congested city, the lonely
prairie home of a western farmer, or within the sumptuous palace of a
millionaire. Imbued with the spirit of the Nation, he stands upon his own feet
and gladly enlists as a soldier in the battle of life.
Independence. — The American is the personification of independence.
He asks no favors of government or men. He demands his rights and is always
ready to uphold them. He has cultivated the habit of self-reliance and is ready
to undertake any legitimate enterprise which, in his judgment, has a reasonable
chance of success. Resourceful and unafraid, he has ventured into every field
of endeavor, cheerfully paying the cost of his failure and as cheerfully
sharing with others the rewards of his success. In the spirit of independence
America has won her way to leadership in times of peace, and in times of war to
a place of honor and respect among the nations.
Initiative. — Out of independence has grown a force of individual
initiative which has made our great achievements possible. Initiative might
well be termed the generator from which has come the power for all our
accomplishments. Tradition looks always to that which is old in habits,
customs, culture, government, institutions, families, and structures.
Initiative is forever putting off the old and putting on the new. It is the
mother of creative genius, expressed in science and invention.
Without initiative, civilization would first stagnate, then fall rapidly
In no community in the world is freedom of initiative enjoyed as fully as in
America. Government, laws, customs, traditions operate to enhance that
Intelligence. — So far our minds have grasped each successive problem
and found so far the means of meeting each added complexity of modern
civilization. With multiplied wants and ever-expanding fields of endeavor, the
demand for intelligence increases. Machines are taking the place of hands,
increasing production, shortening hours of labor, eliminating the exhaustion of
toil, giving more time to self-betterment, recuperation, and recreation.
Markets become world-wide, competition grows keener, international affairs
demand care and diplomacy; nations are awakening; tho magic of science in
transportation and communication has made us largely a family of nations with
divergent aspirations, varied needs, and growing demands for
101. The price of success. — The price of success, whether of individual or
nation, is found in work, education, and ideals.
Work. — The world grows more busy with each passing year. Its
machinery is never idle. Its burdens are too great to be encumbered with dead
weight. Backward individuals and backward nations will surely be crushed
beneath the Juggernaut we call civilization, unless they take a more active and
intelligent part in its affairs.
There is more and greater work to be done with each succeeding generation.
The achievements of individuals in the past are a challenge to the youth of
today. There are still further fields of exploration, adventure, and
accomplishment, and a multitude of past achievements to be perfected. Every man
possessed of the will to work finds his opportunity awaiting him.
Education. — Education he must have. The time is past when hope of
success can be offered to the ignorant. With each succeeding year the necessity
for special accomplishments and particular fitness is more pronounced. Science
has so far advanced as to become broken into many divisions, each requiring
special training. Applied to every branch of government, industry, and even
society, the demand is for education, that intelligence may be developed and
applied to its full capacity; for in no other way may progress be assured, and
progress is the purpose of life.
Ideals. — Work and education are not sufficient to equip either the
individual or nation for the accomplishment of the purposes of life. There must
also be the inspiration and governing force of ideals.
Without ideals there can be no lasting achievements. Without ideals there
can be neither understanding, tolerance, justice, nor brother" hood between
individuals or nations. Without high ideals there can be no worth-while
aspirations, no true nobility of character, no spirit of unselfish service, all
of which are essential to real progress.
102. The citizen's privilege. — Emerson said, "Hitch your wagon to a star."
The citizen should demand of himself and for himself tho best that life
affords, and devote his energies in an evergrowing measure to public service,
for the real joy of life is service to our fellow men.
This is the land of "equality of opportunity." The citizen alone can
determine the measure of his participation in freedom's field. What he does and
how he does it will be dependent upon his will to work, the thoroughness of his
education, and the quality of his ideals.
We are a country of 118,000,000 people, speaking one language, having an
enormous consuming power and an adequate transportation system for prompt
distribution. We are not restricted within our wide limits by artificial
barriers. We produce where it is most advantageous and distribute to the
consumer where he may live. Here in the East we may eat the apples and use the
timber from the Northwest, and the Pacific slope may buy cotton cloth from the
Carolinas and motors from Detroit. Nowhere in the world does there exist so
large, so varied, and so unrestricted a market as the United States.
There is a force underlying these factors and one which to me is all
important. I mean the initiative and energy of the American people. We are
willing to work. We have that divine restlessness which will not permit us to
accept things as they are but drives us to find something better. We are
constantly improving our machinery, our methods, ourselves. Here no man accepts
the level into which he has been born as fixing his status for life. Ability is
quickly recognized; to rise is easy. * * * There is movement, not fixation, in
our life in America. — Andrew W. Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury.
What is the chief purpose of government?
What is the fundamental principle of "collectivists" government?
Describe four of the principal elements of "collectivism."
What is the general effect of "socialism"? Describe.
Should the government provide the means of livelihood? State reasons.
Has any government the right to restrict the exercise of the power of
What is the fundamental principle of "individualistic" government?
Name and describe five of the principal elements of "individualistic"
Explain tho origin of "individualism" as an experiment in government.
In what manner does the Constitution guarantee political, economic, and
social freedom for the American citizen?
Name four characteristics of the American character.
What determines the success either of an individual or a nation?
In what way are high ideals essential to real progress?
State the synonym for "America."
What responsibility does freedom of initiative place upon the American
SECTION VII LESSON 7. — LIBERTY AND INDEPENDENCE
Historical background --------------------------------------------------
Slow development of necessary knowledge ------------------------- 104
The Declaration of Independence, a protest ------------------------- 105
Independence of the Colonies.
Liberty defined ---------------------------------------------------------
Personal liberty --------------------------------------------------------
Freedom of action.
Religious liberty -------------------------------------------------------
Separation of church and state.
Religion and national defense.
Freedom of speech and press -----------------------------------------
Restriction of abuses.
Economic liberty -------------------------------------------------------
Property rights safeguarded.
Political liberty ---------------------------------------------------------
Safeguards to our liberties --------------------------------------------
103. Historical background. — The historical background of liberty and
independence is the story of the human race in every stage of its development
and in every corner of the earth. It is told in the ages-old pyramids of Egypt,
builded upon the backs of human slaves; in the philosophies of Plato and
Socrates; and uncovered in the catacombs of Rome. In the German forests it was
planted deep in the hearts of Saxon and Norman, and there given its first real
semblance of form.
England, in the days of the Saxon and Norman conquest, in the time of
Cromwell and Elizabeth, laid a still broader foundation upon which to build the
structure of self-government.
Slowly there was evolved an appreciation of government incorporation of the
rights of individuals into fixed laws or practices. Yet there remained the iron
heel of government to crush those whose demand for independence and liberty
exceeded that granted by the will of the ruling King or Parliament.
104. Slow development of necessary knowledge. — It remained, however, a work
still to be accomplished at the time of the first settlements in America, where
in the next 150 years slow progress was to be made in developing the necessary
knowledge upon which liberty and independence could safely rest.
105, The Declaration of Independence, a protest. — The Declaration of
Independence was a protest against the abridgment of such rights as the
colonists claimed as subjects of the British Crown. Their anger was directed
against Parliament rather than the King because restrictions were placed by law
upon the colonists which were not imposed upon citizens of Great Britain
residing in the mother country. These operated solely for the benefit of the
long-established home government and institutions. Spurred by the spirit of
independence engendered through the bitter experiences and necessary
self-reliance required in their century-and-a-half battle to conquer the
American wilderness, and fired by the indignities and injustice to which they
had long been compelled to submit, they threw off the yoke of oppression and
set up a government that would forever guard them against tyranny, however it
might seek to impose its will.
"When in the Course of human events. it becomes
necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected
them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate
and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitled
them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should
declare the causes which impel them to the separation — We hold these truths to
be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their
Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and
the pursuit of Happiness.
And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the
protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives,
our Fortunes and our sacred Honor." — Declaration of Independence.
No man sought or wished for more than to defend his own. None hoped to
plunder or spoil * * * and we all know that it could not have lived a single
day under any well-founded imputation of passion. — Webster.
Independence of the Colonies. — The American Colonies did not become
free and independent until they were strong enough to throw off the yoke of the
oppressor; strong enough to set up and control their own Government through the
voice of the people; strong enough to protect and defend their country from
aggression whether from within or without.
Its enemies. — The "enemies within" who would make the Declaration of
Independence a mockery play one group of Americans against another. They fan
the flames of prejudice. They magnify fancied evils of injustices to the
ignorant. They distort its language to suit their own ends so cleverly that
many of the less informed follow them in the name of Americanism.
Its survival. — Every American citizen must be constantly on guard if
the principles set forth in the Declaration of Independence are to survive.
106. Liberty defined. — There are two kinds of liberty — absolute liberty:
That of the savage, in which any individual may act as he pleases; and civil
liberty: That of a civilized community in which human actions are regulated by
law for the good of all — subject only to such restraints as a solemn and
tolerant judgment determines to be essential.
Political liberty is no other than natural liberty so far restrained by
human laws and no further, as is necessary and expedient for the general
advantage of the public. — Blackstone.
Liberty does not free the people from the necessity for control, but it
places a heavy burden of responsibility upon the individual for self-control.
It is not license to do as one pleases. Through developed "intelligence" man
has power to control his baser and more selfish instincts, compelling their
exercise and restriction in the interest of society.
Minority control exercises its will until such time as general intelligence
becomes sufficiently informed to establish an order of society with a larger
and more even distribution of benefit to all, and the law of will (force) is
supplanted by the law of reason.
As defined in the Preamble to the Constitution, liberty is the absence of
arbitrary human restraints upon personal conduct other than those imposed by
the authority of just laws, obedience to which is an essential part of it.
Fundamental law. — The rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of
happiness are beyond the right of any government to legally usurp or
To secure this (liberty) is the main business of governments and the reason
for their institution. If they fall in this they have failed in all. —
These principles were written by our fathers into a constitution of
government, for the first time in human history, when they wrote the
Constitution and it became the fundamental law of a new nation dedicated to the
proposition that "all men are created equal" and that "government derives its
just powers from the consent of the governed."
Equality. — What is meant by "equality" is clearly defined by Lincoln
in his debate with Douglas.
In responding to Douglas's question, "What do you mean — 'all men are
created equal?'" Lincoln replied:
"I think the authors of that notable instrument intended to include all men,
but they did not intend to declare all men equal in all respects. They did not
mean to say all were equal in color, size, intellect, moral development, or
social capacity. They defined with tolerable distinctness in what respect they
did consider all men created equal — equal with "certain inalienable rights,
among which are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." This they said
and this they meant. They did not mean to assert the obvious untruth that all
were then actually enjoying that equality, nor yet that they were about to
confer it immediately upon them. In fact, they had no power to confer such a
boon. They simply meant to declare the right, so that enforcement of it might
follow as fast as circumstances should permit."
107. Personal liberty. — Freedom of action. — Every citizen is on an
equal footing as to privileges and opportunity. Any denial of such rights
results from either the limited ability of the individual to take full
advantage of opportunity, or because of prejudices in no way a part of the
ruling law of our land.
Born free citizens, or acquiring that right through naturalization, we have
full freedom of action — without infringement upon the rights of others — to
reside or travel at home or abroad under the protection and with all privileges
accorded by our Government, regardless of race, color, religion, or social
Full opportunity is here given to every citizen to work out his own ideals
and ideas. To the native born this privilege is accepted as a matter of no
great significance, for he is wholly unfamiliar with the laws, traditions, and
customs that direct and restrict individual action of citizens in foreign
countries. The American citizen frequently changes his occupation. His very
liberty keeps him on the alert for an opportunity to better his financial or
social status. The change is one of occupation, not of personality; his pride
and self-respect are not involved.
108. Religious liberty. — No greater liberty was ever conferred on a people
than that of freedom to worship according to the dictates of one's own
The first amendment to the Constitution declares that "Congress shall make
no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibit the free exercise
All persons have the privilege to entertain any religious belief, practice
any religious rite, teach any religious doctrine, which is not subversive of
morality and does not interfere with the personal rights of others.
However, this liberty can not be "invoked as a protection against
legislation for the punishment of acts inimical to the peace, good order, and
morals of society," because professed doctrines of religious belief are not
superior to the laws of the land. No person is permitted to become a law unto
himself, nor may he in the name of religion, or through a religious ceremony,
violate the law.
Religious liberty does not include the right to introduce and carry out
every scheme or purpose which persons see fit to claim as a part of their
religious system. While there is no legal authority to constrain belief, no one
can lawfully stretch his own liberty of action so as to interfere with that of
his neighbors, or violate peace or good order. — United States Supreme
Laws are made for the government of actions, and while they can not
interfere with mere religious beliefs and opinions, they may with practices. —
United States Supreme Court.
Separation of church and state. — The separation of church and state
is a fundamental principle of American Government. Neither is permitted to
dictate to or exercise power over the other. In no other way can religious
liberty be preserved.
Religion and national defense. — There is no place for the doctrine
of "noncooperation." Religious beliefs will not excuse any citizen from
rendering service in the defense of the country, although Congress has power at
its discretion to exempt him.
109. Freedom of speech and press. — The right to act, to think, to speak, to
print, is the surest way to protect the liberties, and continue the full
measure of independence which America so richly possesses. In these rights lies
the means of creating a public opinion representative of the entire Nation.
This liberty is indispensable to further social, economic, and political
development. Clash of opinions creates interest and thought on all public
questions. A realization of the force of public opinion expressed by the
ballot, awakens a sense of responsibility that compels the best minds to give
careful study to any subject that vitally concerns our Nation. Through the
present means of communication, the people are daily informed in every matter
of national or international import.
Abuses. — This privilege does not permit the publication of libels or
other matter injurious to public morals or private reputation. Like all
liberties granted under the broad principles of the Constitution, these rights
are abused to the detriment of the best interests of the people.
Propaganda. — Propaganda floods our country from every conceivable
source. Active and vociferous agencies have been organized for the express
purpose of advancing doctrines absolutely not in accord with the fixed
principles of our Nation. In the most persistent manner they seek to tear down
rather than build, to destroy rather than improve. One of their most subtly
dangerous features is that it is so camouflaged as to make it appear to have an
To prevent such activities during the World War, Congress found it necessary
to pass the espionage act of 1917 for the safety of the State and the
successful outcome of the struggle.
We carefully supervise every agency whose business may in any degree affect
the physical health of our people. Equal care should be exercised over all
agencies which in any manner may affect our social, economic, or political
Restriction of abuses. — There is no law in any state or nation that
prohibits freedom of speech or press, but there are laws against the abuse of
this right. Restrictions may be necessary for the preservation of public order
and the protection of the State. While Congress is forbidden by the
Constitution to abridge the freedom of speech or the press, the punishment of
those who violate every principle of loyalty and patriotism modifies in no
manner the constitutional provision. The law punishes because of the crime
against the country and its citizens.
The first amendment "can not have been, and obviously was not, intended to
give immunity for every possible use of language." — Justice Holmes.
Blackstone's maxims, which help to interpret the present limitation on
speech and press:
(1) Between public and private rights the public rights must prevail.
(2) Liberty to all, but preference to none.
(3) Those offenses should be most severely punished which are most difficult
to guard against.
110. Economic liberty. — Property rights safeguarded. — Under no
other government are property rights of the individual so provided with
safeguards' for their full protection. Property is at the base of civilization.
Without incentive of right to its private possession and full protection
against confiscation no progress would be made in material betterment.
Economic liberty, the power of initiative, and the protection of property
rights have developed a philosophy of life peculiar to America — the "dignity
of work." Every American is expected to be a worker.
Based upon the constitutional assurance of the security of property, finance
and labor have joined in the creation of industry, making America the richest
nation in the world. Her wealth has been distributed to the enrichment of her
111. Political liberty. — Equal participation. — The list of
public-office holders in city, State, and Nation reveals the measure of
political liberty granted in America. There are found representatives of
practically every race in the world. They have been elected by the people as
their able and honorable representatives.
Every citizen enjoys the protection and benefits of our municipal, State,
and National Governments.
Any suggestion of racial or religious differences is frowned upon. It is the
sincere wish of the majority that tolerance and understanding weld our people
of all nationalities into a social, economic, and political unity for the
purpose of developing a strong national character and a race of men and women
whose ideals and attainments shall be an inspiration and help to the peoples of
all the earth.
The greatest degree of political liberty is secured by wise laws properly
enforced. Anarchy destroys liberty because it is lawlessness and confusion, and
utter disregard of all government.
112. Safeguards to our liberties. — By clinging to the ideas and ideals
which animated the framers of the Declaration of Independence, we can assure
not only peace within, but national security and respect from other
When we fail to adequately comprehend the principles incident to our
Government, its fundamental ideals which have made our Government, the United
States of America faces anarchy and destruction.
Let our object be our country, our whole country, and nothing but our
country, and by the blessing of God may that country itself become a vast and
splendid monument, not of oppression and terror, but of wisdom, of peace, and
of liberty, upon which the world may gaze with admiration forever. —
Describe the historical background of human liberty.
What foundation is necessary for liberty and independence?
What was the Declaration of Independence?
When are a people free and independent?
How do the "enemies within" show disrespect for the Declaration of
How, only, can the principles set forth in this document survive?
Name and describe the two kinds of liberty.
Does liberty mean freedom from control? Explain.
How is liberty defined in the Preamble to the Constitution? By whom and
Define personal liberty.
What is meant by religious liberty?
Do religious beliefs excuse a citizen from rendering service in defense of
the country? Explain.
What is the relation of church and state?
Is freedom of speech and press beneficial to our national life? What are
some of its abuses? Describe.
Can these abuses be restricted? How?
Blackstone's maxims which help interpret the present limitations on speech and
What safeguards are given to property?
What is meant by political liberty?
By what instrumentality can the greatest degree of political liberty be
SECTION VIII LESSON 8. — THE PURPOSE OF GOVERNMENT
Progress of government -----------------------------------------------
Government by autocracy.
Government of laws.
Sources of the Constitution -------------------------------------------
The purpose of government ------------------------------------------ 115
The Preamble to the Constitution ------------------------------------
"We, the people."
"A more perfect Union."
"Blessings of liberty."
The American philosophy of government --------------------------- 117
113. Progress of government. — In the beginning of human history, with needs
and wants limited to food and shelter, man's dominating impulse was the
preservation of life.
His social instinct led to the establishment of families, groups, and
tribes. Transmitting habits, traditions, customs, and superstitions to
succeeding generations, there came to be formed definite and distinctive racial
types with fixed governing principles.
Governments of a kind were set up, order was created, but with the
accumulation of property, and increasing wants, conflicts occurred, the strong
despoiling the weak. Alliances for defense and offense were formed. Agreements
between rulers and subjects and forms of treaties with nations brought about a
more or less defined code of conduct and law, invariably enforced to the
benefit of those who held the power.
Government by autocracy. — Selfish and often cruel leaders preyed
upon the weak and ignorant in the accomplishment of their ambitious designs.
Autocracy held power through appeal to the emotions engendered by pomp and
glitter of the court, or by fear created through control of military forces and
the means of livelihood.
By various methods the rights of citizenship were confined to the prescribed
limits dictated by "will" (force) until increasing intelligence within the
ranks of the people began to exert a counteracting influence.
The historical development of the "ancient liberties" of the English people,
establishing individual rights, began with the meeting of King John and the
Barons on the field of Runnymede in 1215 A. D., where the Magna Charta was
signed, which guaranteed rights beyond the power of the king to take away. By
successive steps, in protection of these rights, came the act of Parliament
(1295), Petition of Rights (1628), habeas corpus act (1679), Bill of Bights
(1689), and the act of settlement (1701).
These liberties did not originate with charters, but were simply confirmed
by them and made the "fixed principles of freedom."
Restrictions of government on the life of the people created caste,
favoritism and taxation became oppressive, and men left Europe and came to
Government of laws. — Until the adoption of the Constitution,
government was imposed by the will of the minority and enforced by absolute
control of economic institutions and military forces.
Under the Constitution a "Government of laws and not of men" was formulated
out of the experiences of the centuries in which feudalism, despotism,
autocracy had given form to the ruling forces of government.
114. Sources of the Constitution. — The underlying principles of the
Constitution were not formulated in a day. The three great American charters of
liberty contained the fundamental principles of American government: "Bill for
establishing religious freedom in Virginia," "Virginia Bill of Rights," and
"Declaration of Independence." Before the Constitutional Convention met in
Philadelphia, many plans and suggestions were drafted and presented to the
In addition to this careful preparation after more than a century of
self-government, there were in the convention men of extraordinary natural
ability and wide experience, like Washington, Franklin, and Hamilton. There
were men who had studied law at the Inner Temple in London, who had been
educated in the University of Edinburgh, who had been graduated from American
colleges, who had been governors of States, chief justices of supreme courts,
and men who had achieved distinction at the bar and in business life. Edmund
Burke stated in the House of Commons in March, 1776, that more books of law
were going to America than any other kind. Of the 55 members of the
Constitutional Convention, 31 were lawyers. Blackstone's Commentaries were
taught by Chancellor Wythe in William and Mary College before the Declaration
of Independence. John Marshall, Thomas Jefferson, and James Monroe were among
When our Constitution was written Harvard College (1636) had been sending
out, educated young men for just a century and a, half, Willlam and Mary
College (1603) had been graduating learned youths for almost a century,
College (1701) had been contributing to the education of the people for more
than three-quarters of a century, and Princeton (1746) had been teaching for
half a century. The people were well prepared for their great endeavor. —
Thomas James Norton.
115. The purpose of government. — A correct understanding of the purposes of
government furnishes a remedy for erroneous and dangerous ideas threatening
Government is instituted for the common benefit, maintaining order, and
protecting life, liberty, and property.
To secure liberty is the main business of governments and the reason for
their institution. — Blackstone.
Paternalism. — The paternalism of communism which provides both
property and subsistence for the individual is not a proper function of
government. It results only in individual irresponsibility.
116. The Preamble to the Constitution. — The Preamble to the Constitution is
a most accurate and comprehensive statement of the purpose of government. It
explicitly sets forth the fundamental purposes for which government is
primarily organized. The brevity, simplicity, and directness of its original
draft, after 150 years of experience, require no change.
We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union,
establish Justice, insure Domestic Tranquility, provide for the Common Defense,
promote the General Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves
and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution of the United
States of America. — Preamble to the Constitution.
"We, the people." — The convention, which met in Philadelphia in
1787, adopted a Constitution based upon the proposition that a people are able
to govern themselves.
Under the Articles of Confederation the State assumed control. A single
State might exercise veto power over the will of all the others.
In the government set up under the new Constitution the power and rights of
the people are the source and final authority. It derives its "just powers from
the consent of the governed." For the first tune in human history "the people"
assumed control and government became subject to their will.
Nowhere is American independence and self-reliance better exemplified than
in the words, "We, the people."
The people, the highest authority known to our system, from whom all our
institutions spring and upon whom they depend, formed it. — President
Its language, "We, the people," is the institution of one great consolidated
national government of the people of all the States, instead of a government by
compact with the States for its agents. — Patrick Henry.
"A more perfect Union." — In the original federation the States were
but loosely joined. The Constitution was a demand for more effective control of
the Union by the Government.
In the efficacy and permanency of your Union a government for the whole is
indispensable * * *. You have improved upon your first essay (Articles of
Confederation) by the adoption of a constitution of government « » » for the
efficacious management of your common concerns. * * * Indignantly frown upon
the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from
the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various
parts. — Washington — Farewell Address.
In the course of the Civil War the Southern States sought to dissolve our
Union; President Lincoln sought to preserve our Union.
The States have their status in the Union, and they have no other legal
status * * *. The Union, and not themselves separately, procured their
independence and liberty. * * * The Union is older than any of the States and,
in fact, created them as States. — Abraham Lincoln — Message to
Congress, July 4, 1861.
The right of secession was forever settled by the fourteenth amendment to
the Constitution, which declares, "All persons born or naturalized in the
United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the
United States and of the State wherein they reside." The National Government is
not an assemblage of States, but of individuals.
To refuse allegiance to the United States is to be a traitor to the Nation.
However, in the dual capacity of citizenship, we render service as citizens of
both the State in which we hold legal residence and the United States. Each of
our 48 States retains its own sovereignty in all matters relating exclusively
to State affairs, in which it is protected by its own constitution. In all
interstate, national, or international affairs both the citizen and the State
owe allegiance to the Union.
"Justice." — Our Government, assures "justice" in that it is a
government of laws, not of men. In the heat of passion or sectional interest,
in clashes between groups or questions of policy, no minority or bloc may
enforce its will. Should a majority seek to injure the rights of an individual
citizen, the power of veto resting in the President, or the power of the
Supreme Court as an unbiased tribunal, will insist that justice be done.
A series of checks and balances, which prevent the selfish interests of
either individuals or groups from exercising their will to the injustice of
another, is provided by the Constitution.
Wherever there is an interest and power to do wrong, wrong will generally be
done, and not less readily by a powerful and interested party than by a
powerful and interested prince. — James Madison.
In questions of power, then, let no more be heard of confidence in man, but
bind him down from mischief to the chains of the Constitution. — Thomas
"Domestic tranquillity." — At the conclusion of the Revolutionary War
the Colonial States were bankrupt. Foreign credit was exhausted and could not
be reestablished until a responsible central government was created. Soldiers
remained unpaid long after the war was ended. Colonies quarreled with each
other over duties imposed upon the goods sold or bartered. Chaos and anarchy,
disillusion, and despair prevailed, all because of lack of proper organization
and power in government.
The Government established under the Articles of Confederation "defrayed all
expenses out of the common treasury" to which each State was supposed to
contribute, but this was done in full only by New York and Pennsylvania. All
nonenforceable obligations were left to conscience, individual or
"Domestic tranquillity" requires a measure of enforced responsibility,
mutual faith, and harmonious and prosperous conditions. These are provided
under the Constitution through the powers conferred upon the National
Government regulating interstate affairs, making interchange of commodities,
communication, transportation, and freedom of residence, occupation, and
industry equal to all.
"Domestic tranquillity" is further assured by religious freedom, free
speech, and free press, thereby establishing interchange of thought which
results in the creation of a national public opinion and brings within its
influence every citizen, regardless of race, religion, financial condition, or
"Common defense." — A country worth fighting for to establish was
worth fighting for to preserve.
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts' and
Excises, to pay the debts and provide for the Common Defense and Welfare of the
United States. * * * To declare War, grant letters of Marque and Reprisal, and
make rules concerning captures on Land and Water; to raise and support Armies,
but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two
years. * * * To provide and maintain a Navy; To make rules for the Government
and Regulation of the land and naval forces; To provide for calling forth the
Militia; to execute the laws of the Union, to suppress Insurrections and repel
Invasions; To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the Militia. * *
* — Constitution, Article I, section 8.
Attention is especially called to the limited period of two years as the
length of time to be covered by any appropriation of money for the military
forces. Without the consent of the people through their Representatives in
Congress, any army created would fall to pieces for lack of funds. A great deal
is said about the effort to "militarize" America through carrying out the
provisions of the national defense act of 1920. This act was created by the
people, for the people, to be paid for by the people. It can be killed by
repeal or by refusal to make necessary appropriations. In the last analysis the
people are the military force of the United States; their employees, the
Regular Army, National Guard, and Organized Reserves, are working for them, and
in absolute obedience to rules and regulations laid down by their agent, the
The United States is not solicitous, it never has been, about the methods or
ways in which that protection shall be accomplished; whether by formal treaty
stipulation or by formal convention, whether by the action of judicial
tribunals or by that of military force. Protection, in fact, to American lives
and property is the sole point upon which the United States is tenacious. —
William M. Evarts (1878).
"General welfare." — The United States is a family of Commonwealths.
Each State is possessed of its own natural resources, in the development of
which it is necessary for its own best interests to have the full cooperation
of every, other State in exchange of raw materials, finished products, and farm
produce. Its great land areas and mighty rivers are frequently the concern of
several States or of the entire Nation.
It is within the power of Congress to appropriate funds for constructing
canals, river and harbor development, and control irrigation projects where
more than one State is interested, hard roads, and Postal Service; to regulate
communications and transportation; and, through its various departments,
perform such other services as will result in benefit to all citizens. This is
not paternalism, but that protection of person and property which enables the
citizen to obtain the greatest possible returns in the exercise of his own
"Blessings of liberty." — To secure the "blessings" of liberty was
the fundamental purpose of the makers of the Constitution and its subsequent
adoption. They include all the rights and privileges that a citizen of this
country enjoys — a voice in the Government; freedom to worship according to the
dictates of the individual conscience; freedom of speech and of the press; the
lack of restriction upon all inherent individual rights.
The liberty of America is not that which permits the individual citizen to
do as he pleases. He may so long as he does not interfere with the liberty of
others. The liberty of the individual ends where the rights of others
We all declare for liberty, but in using the word we do not all mean the
same thing. With some the word liberty may mean for each man to do as he
pleases with himself and the product of his labor; while with others the same
word may mean for some men to do as they please with other men and the product
of other men's labor. Here are two not only different but incompatible things
called by the same name — liberty. And it follows that each of the things is,
by the respective parties, called by two different and incompatible names —
liberty and tyranny. The shepherd drives the wolf from the sheep's throat, for
which the sheep thanks the shepherd as his liberator, while the wolf denounces
him for the same act as the destroyer of liberty. — Abraham Lincoln.
The "blessings" which the citizen enjoys under our form of government are
secured through "liberty under law," the enforcement of which is their only
The purpose of our Government is to protect (not to provide) the property of
its citizens; to guard his person (not to provide his subsistence) while he
acquires the means of livelihood; to give every citizen equal opportunity in
his chosen work and assure him of equal standing before the law.
Our Government is the most nearly perfect of all in securing individual
rights and insuring the blessings of liberty. In no other nation is equal
opportunity and equal protection assured, with such equal division of reward
for labor and services rendered.
117. The American philosophy of government. — The American philosophy of
government emphasizes that —
(1) Individual rights are sacred and it is necessary to establish a
government in the protection of these rights.
(2) All the powers of government are derived from the people, who retain the
supreme authority over all delegated powers of government.
(3) Individual rights are not permitted to be exercised in the contravention
of the rights of society. Individual liberty is always bounded by social
(4) Government is exercised for the purpose of protecting the individual in
(5) Governmental powers are delegated to the National, State, or local
authority, and are limited in their exercise by provisions of the Constitution
as interpreted and defined by the Supreme Court.
(6) All rights not thus delegated are recognized as the inviolable right of
the individual citizen and can not be usurped by any governmental power.
(7) The Government of the United States is not a democracy but a
At the time of the adoption of the Constitution what was the usual form of
What was the principal distinction between "government of laws" and
"government of men"?
What were the sources of the American Constitution?
What led the colonists to leave Europe and come to America?
Describe the doctrine of paternalism.
Is the paternalistic form of government efficient?
Define the true purpose of government.
Why is a correct understanding of the purposes of government necessary?
What is the Preamble to the Constitution? Quote it.
What is the source and final authority of government?
What is the meaning of "consent of the governed"?
How did the "Union" under the Constitution differ from that under the
Articles of Confederation?
Does "dual capacity" of citizenship affect loyalty to the Nation?
How does the Constitution assure "justice" to the individual citizen?
How can "domestic tranquillity" become possible in a nation composed of all
Who provides for the "common defense" of the Nation? How?
What is meant by "general welfare"?
What "blessings of liberty" are secured by our Constitution? In general what
is the American philosophy of government?
SECTION IX LESSON 9. — REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT
Early forms of government -------------------------------------------
Representative government -------------------------------------------
The American experiment.
Comparative analysis --------------------------------------------------
Superior to all others --------------------------------------------------
No direct action --------------------------------------------------------
Methods of representative government ------------------------------ 123
An unwritten constitution.
A written constitution.
Consent of the governed ----------------------------------------------
"American Bill of Rights" ---------------------------------------------
Enumeration of constitutional rights ---------------------------------
Government by representation ----------------------------------------
Separation of powers --------------------------------------------------
Checks and balances ---------------------------------------------------
Federal judiciary --------------------------------------------------------
Delegated national powers ---------------------------------------------
Powers reserved to state and people ----------------------------------
Dangers to representative government ------------------------------- 134
Sectional and class legislation.
Multiplicity of laws.
Socialism, communism, anarchy.
Ignorance of citizens.
Direct responsibility to the people.
Knowledge concerning the Constitution.
118. Early forms of government. — Until the eighteenth century the world had
little experience with republics. In the ancient world Greece and Rome
furnished early examples of attempts to form democratic governments. In Grecian
cities popular government was practiced, the free people directly making the
laws. In Rome the townsman passed laws to his own advantage. And in the
so-called Venetian republic the power was vested in a few nobles.
After the failure of many experiments in free government the ancient world
turned to monarchy, believing that the people were unfit to govern themselves.
For centuries, political revolutions were struggles for better government,
rather than self-government.
At the time of the Revolutionary War the republican form of government was
discredited throughout the world, monarchy and oligarchy being considered the
proper forms of good government.
119. Representative government. — The American experiment. — A few
races qualified themselves for self-government. To establish that form of
government was a long, hard struggle which culminated in the great American
The United States set up a distinct and different form of government, the
product of distinct racial stocks and centuries spent in learning the
principles and art of self-government. In practice, our form of government is
the most nearly perfect in securing individual rights and ensuring the
blessings of liberty.
It differs from previous forms in certain vital and fundamental principles
which have come to be known as "American institutions." Among these is that of
self-government by representation, which is "the golden mean between autocracy
120. Comparative analysis. — The following comparative analysis shows the
principal characteristics of the three forms of government:
Authority is derived through heredity.
People have no choice in the selection of their rulers and no voice in
making of the laws.
Results in arbitrariness, tyranny, and oppression.
Attitude toward property is feudalistic.
Attitude toward law is that the will of the ruler shall control, regardless
of reason or consequences.
Democracy: A government of the masses.
Authority derived through mass meeting or any other form of "direct"
Results in mobocracy.
Attitude toward property is communistic — negating property rights.
Attitude toward law is that the will of the majority shall regulate, whether
it be based upon deliberation or governed by passion, prejudice, and impulse,
without restraint or regard to consequences.
Results in demagogism, license, agitation, discontent, anarchy.
Authority is derived through the election by the people of public officials
best fitted to represent them.
Attitude toward property is respect for laws and individual rights, and a
sensible economic procedure.
Attitude toward law is the administration of justice in accord with fixed
principles and established evidence, with a strict regard to consequences.
A greater number of citizens and extent of territory may be brought within
Avoids the dangerous extreme of either tyranny or mobocracy.
Results in statesmanship, liberty, reason, justice, contentment, and
Is the "standard form" of government throughout the world.
A republic is a form of government under a constitution which provides for
the election of (1) an executive and (2) a legislative body, who working
together in a representative capacity, have all the power of appointment, all
power of legislation, all power to raise revenue and appropriate expenditures,
and are required to create (3) a judiciary to pass upon the justice and
legality of their governmental acts and to recognize (4) certain inherent
Take away any one or more of those four elements and you are drifting into
autocracy. Add one or more to those four elements and you are drifting into
democracy. — Atwood.
121. Superior to all others. — Autocracy declares the divine right of kings;
its authority can not be questioned; its powers are arbitrarily or unjustly
Democracy is the "direct" rule of the people and has been repeatedly tried
Our Constitutional fathers, familiar with the strength and weakness of both
autocracy and democracy, with fixed principles definitely in mind, defined a
representative republican form of government. They "made a very marked
distinction between a republic and a democracy * * * and said repeatedly and
emphatically that they had founded a republic."
Madison, in the Federalist, emphasized the fact that this government was a
republic and not a democracy, the Constitution makers having considered both an
autocracy and a democracy as undesirable forms of government while "a republic
* * * promises the cure for which we are seeking."
In a democracy the people meet and exercise the government in person. In a
republic they assemble and administer it by their respective agents. —
The advantage which a republic has over a democracy consists in the
substitution of representatives whose enlightened views and virtuous sentiments
render them superior to local prejudices and to schemes of injustice. —
The American form of government is the oldest republican form of government
in the world, and is exercising a pronounced influence in modifying the
governments of other nations. Our Constitution has been copied in whole or in
part throughout the earth.
122. No direct action. — Under the representative form of government there
is no place for "direct action." The inherent characteristic of a republic is
government by representation. The people are permitted to do only two things;
they may vote once every four years for the executive and once in two years for
members of the legislative body.
123. Methods of representative government. — Constitutional government may
be set up under either a written or an unwritten Constitution.
An unwritten constitution. — An unwritten constitution consists
largely of customs, precedents, conditions, and understandings, and is
constantly changing; any party in power may enact legislation materially
affecting the methods of government and the political rights of citizens.
A written constitution. — In the United States the rights of the
people are fully protected and the functions of government strictly defined in
a written document — the Constitution. It is called a "rigid Constitution"
because tho legislative power has no authority to change it. It is subject to
amendment only by the authority and action of the people through their
representatives in Congress.
The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary,
shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the
legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for
proposing amendments, which in either case, shall be valid to all intents and
purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of
three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths
thereof, as one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the
Congress; provided * * * that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived
of its equal suffrage in the Senate. — Constitution, Article V.
Since the adoption of the Constitution our Nation has increased in
population from 3,000,000 to more than 125,000,000 and has developed from a
wilderness to the greatest industrial nation in the world. The adequacy of our
Constitution is evidenced by the adoption of only 19 amendments to modify the
principles set forth in the original document.
As a wall of protection our written Constitution stands between the people
and those who, through lust for power, or the temporary passions of the moment,
or for any other reason, would trespass upon the rights of person or
124. Consent of the governed. — The original desire of the colonists was
"only to hare a voice" in the affairs of the Government.
Governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the
consent of the governed * * *. We have petitioned for Redress in the most
bumble terras: Our repented Petitions have been answered only by repeated
tyranny. — Declaration of Independence.
The situation so developed that the colonists totally dissolved "all
political connection between them and the State of Great Britain," and
established a new form of government based upon the "consent of the governed."
"Consent" in the drafting and approval of the instrument of government and its
subsequent amendment was a new feature.
125. "American Bill of Rights." — When the Constitutional Convention was
drawing to a close several members who opposed the adoption of the Constitution
suggested a number of amendments, which, they declared, "would make the
Constitution acceptable to them."
While the Constitution already contained many provisions for the protection
of the rights of the individual citizen, various States desired that it contain
further written stipulations that would remove every possibility of doubt and
prevent disputes by "leaving no matters to inference, implication, or
It was contended that the provision of the suggested Bill of Rights
contained "various exceptions not granted * * *. Why declare that things shall
not be done which there is no power to do?"
The tyranny of legislature is a most formidable dread at present, and will
be for many years. That of the Executive will come in its time, but it will be
at a remote period. — Madison.
Subsequently, many of these features were incorporated in the first 10
amendments, adopted in 1791 as supplements to the Constitution, and are called
the "American Bill of Rights."
The first 10 amendments embodied "guaranties and immunities which are
inherited from our English ancestors." — Supreme Court (1897).
126. Enumeration of constitutional rights. — Individual rights formally
guarded by original constitutional provisions: No ex-post facto laws. No
bill of attainder. No suspension of privileges of habeas corpus.
Trial by jury and at places where the crimes were committed.
Definition of treason and limiting punishment.
Guaranty of immunity and privileges of all States to the citizens of each
No religious test before admission to public office.
To which the Bill of Rights added:
Right of peaceable assembly and petition to the Government for redress of
Freedom of religion, speech, and press.
Right of the people to keep and bear arms — militia.
Quartering of soldiers only as provided by law.
Protection against unreasonable searches.
Right of accused to indictment by grand jury with certain exceptions.
No compulsory testimony against self.
No deprivation of rights without due process of law.
No confiscation of private property for public use without just
Right of a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury.
Right to demand information concerning the nature and cause of
To be confronted with witnesses against him.
Compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor.
Have assistance of counsel for defense.
Right of trial by jury in suits of common law where value and controversy
shall exceed $20.
Protection of verdict of said jury.
No excessive bail required.
No imposition of excessive fines.
No infliction of cruel and unusual punishment.
Rights retained by the people shall not be denied nor disparaged.
Powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution nor prohibited
by it to the States are reserved to the States or to the people.
127. Government by representation. — The framers of the Constitution were
opposed to direct government. The remedy sought was to be found in
representative government. Madison declared that the object to which their
efforts wore to be directed was how to prevent a majority rule and to preserve
the spirit and form of popular government. The representative form of
government was their answer.
The United States shall guarantee to every State in the Union a republican
form of government. — Constitution, Article IV, Sect. 4
Sovereignty was placed in the hands of the people. No authority was
delegated to any department either of National or State Government except by
the people through the provisions contained in the Constitution.
There could be no question but that by a republican form of government was
intended a government in which not only would the people's representatives make
laws and the agents administer them, but the people would also directly or
indirectly choose the Executive. — Cooley.
128. Compromises. — In the establishment of our dual form of government a
spirit of compromise prevailed. The instrument offered by the makers of the
Constitution was the result of compromise, especially in regard to the matter
of representation; the smaller States demanded equal representation with the
larger. The compromise established two Houses of Congress: the Senate, in which
each State was given equal representation; the House of Representatives, in
which the membership was apportioned to the population. The functions of the
two Houses of Congress were specifically stated and their powers definitely
129. Separation of powers. — Members of the convention of 1787 feared the
oppression of highly concentrated power, whether on the part of an individual
or the ascendency of a parliamentary majority. Any suggested scheme to be
satisfactory must limit the power of government rather than expand it.
Their plan of government provided for the division of power into three
A legislative body working together in a representative capacity having
power of appointment, power of legislation, power to raise revenues, power to
appropriate funds for public expenditure.
An executive department whose duty was law enforcement and administration of
A judicial or law-interpreting department, at the head of which stands the
130. Checks and balances. — These departments were separated from each other
as far as possible, cooperating when necessary. Checks were placed upon each,
preventing anyone from becoming absolute or despotic. They wore likewise
balanced against each other in such a manner as to preserve the equilibrium of
government : States are balanced against the Central Government; House of
Representatives is balanced against the Senate; Senate is balanced against the
House of Representatives; executive authority is balanced by the legislative;
legislative department is balanced by the executive; judiciary is balanced
against the legislative, executive, and State governments; Senate is balanced
against the President in all appointment to offices and all treaties; people
hold a balance against their own representatives through periodical
Among the curbs and restrictions on the powers of the Central Government,
the strongest checks are: Establishment of a smaller legislative body with less
changing personnel and longer terms based on equality of representation, having
coordinate legislative authority, with the exception of revenue bills, which
originate in the House of Representatives, and treaties and appointments, which
are committed to the President and the Senate; the public sentiment of an
intelligent and conservative people; popular elections; short terms of office.
131. Federal judiciary. — To accomplish the uniform interpretation of the
Constitution a Federal court system was necessary, and it was provided that the
judges should be appointed by the President, "with the advice and consent of
Through the system of checks and balances the safeguarding of the
Constitution is charged to the Supreme Court. However, every judge in the land
is also bound, under oath or affirmation, to support it and declare void any
enactment which violates its provisions.
When a State court fails to fulfill this obligation "its action is
reviewable and reversible by the Supreme Court of the United States."
This system which makes the judges the guardians of the Constitution
provides the only safeguard which has hitherto been invented against
unconstitutional legislation. — Dicey.
The courts keep each authority within its proper sphere, but they have the
power to interfere only when a concrete case is brought before them for
One method of assault may be to effect in the form of the Constitution
alterations which will impair the energy of the system and thus undermine what
can not be directly overthrown. — Washington — Farewell
A Constitution may be undermined by the passing of laws which, without
nominally changing its provisions, violate its principles. — Dicey.
One of the exceptional features of our republican form of government is the
independence of the Federal judiciary whose jurisdiction extends to all cases
arising under the Constitution itself; cases arising under the Federal laws and
treaties; cases affecting ambassadors, consuls, etc.; cases of admiralty and
maritime jurisdiction; cases in which the United States is a party;
controversies between States; cases commenced by a State against the citizens
of another State; controversies between the citizens of the same State under
grants from different States; cases between American citizens and foreign
states, citizens or subjects.
The balance of power has been preserved. The Constitution as a whole stands
unshaken with but slight encroachments of one department upon the other.
132. Delegated national powers. — Under the plan set up under the
Constitution certain definite powers are delegated to the three departments of
Among the powers delegated to Congress are to —
Pay national debts.
Establish uniform naturalization laws.
Establish the post office.
Provide for the common defense.
Raise and support armies.
Provide a navy.
Among the limitations placed on the powers of Congress are —
Apportionment of representation and direct taxes among the States is
determined by population.
No money can be paid except by law.
All orders, resolutions, and bills must be sent to the President for his
Privilege of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in case of
rebellion or insurrection.
Among the powers delegated to the President are —
Execute the laws.
Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy.
Commission all officers of the United States.
Grant reprieves and pardons.
Make treaties by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.
Nominate judges of the Supreme Court.
Give information to Congress in formal messages.
Sign or veto orders, resolutions, and bills received from Congress.
133. Powers reserved to state and people — The President and Congress can
exercise only those powers directly granted them by the Constitution. All
powers not so delegated are reserved to the people.
The enumeration of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or
disparage others retained by the people. — Amendments to Constitution,
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution nor
prohibited by it to the States are reserved to the States, respectively, or to
the people. — Amendments to Constitution, Article X.
134. Dangers to representative government. — Whenever the republican form of
government has not achieved success the difficulty has not been with the system
but with its faulty application.
Several dangerous experiments have been proposed, such as the initiative,
referendum, recall, and the election of judges. Departures from constitutional
principles threaten to impair the efficiency of our representative form of
government, and if continued, will ultimately destroy it.
Centralization. — Originally "every influence favored the supremacy
of the State as the center of gravity in government." Conferring strong powers
on the proposed central government was feared and avoided. With the development
of industry, invention, business, and transportation, tho different sections of
the country were brought into such intimate and immediate contact that "the
knell of State sovereignty was sounded and the supremacy of the Union became
New and practical problems confront the Government, such as — increase of
governmental business; rise of technical questions in government; popular
demand for greater speed in Government action, and increased size and
unwieldiness of legislative bodies.
Opposition to centralization of power in the National Government rests upon
the general dislike of concentrated power, and its destructive influence on our
philosophy of government.
Sectional and class legislation. — Nothing is more repugnant to the
American citizen than special or class legislation. The founders of our
Government sought unity rather than differentiation. The Civil War settled for
all time the question of the indissolubility of the Union. The general welfare
of the Nation forbids sectional or class legislation. There must be no
preference to the North, East, South, or West. Our motto should be "America for
all, and all for America."
Multiplicity of laws. — The modern tendency of government is to
create innumerable laws as corrective or restrictive measures; appointment of
special officers for their enforcement, with the consequent restriction of
State, community, and personal rights, without regard to the fact that the
majority is unprepared or not willing to accept or respond to the restrictions
imposed. Relief from encroachment upon the rights of the people will come when
each citizen better learns the art of self-government and exercises his right
Socialism, communism, anarchy. — The problems of capital and labor,
employer and employee, can not be solved by unrepublican methods. The
suggestion of special legislation is socialistic and communistic in its theory
and wholly repugnant to the American character.
Socialism or communism which negates property rights; anarchy which negates
law; the substitution of "direct action" for representative government; a
government ownership — all should be avoided as perils that threaten the very
foundation of this Republic.
Ignorance of citizens. — Webster said, "On the diffusion of education
among the people rests the preservation and perpetuity of our free
institutions." In the early Colonies one of the first buildings to be erected
was the schoolhouse. Here was laid, developed, and subsequently spread the
ideals of liberty. One of the foundation stones of representative government is
An intelligent and informed citizen is an asset to the Nation. The great
educational system of America makes it possible for every citizen to best fit
himself for the tasks of life. In the common schools all are taught a common
language, a knowledge of American traditions, ideals, and philosophy of
Through education the barrier that separates the citizen from the greater
enjoyment of his freedom is removed, a better understanding of American ideals
is established, and the influence of subversive propaganda is in large measure
135. Safeguards. — In order to assure perpetuity to our form of government,
certain safeguards are necessary against encroachments both from within and
Direct responsibility to the people. — Having derived its "just
powers from the consent of the governed," tho Government of the United States
is directly responsible to the people as the highest authority. The United
States is governed by public opinion — by the ideas and feelings of the people
at large. The frequency of elections and the short terms of office give the
people control. By reason of this our representatives are slow to attempt any
official action overstepping the bounds of their authority or beyond the
approval of their constituency.
Restricted immigration. — Immigrants who enter the United States to
exploit her resources without a thought of contributing a share to the general
welfare are a menace to our country. Many seeking a haven of relief from the
oppressions of poverty, ignorance, and restrictions, a place where gain is made
easy and burdens made light, come in the spirit of the belief that America owes
them a good living, security, and peace, without a thought of the price that
has been paid to obtain these blessings or the cost of their maintenance.
Against these America acclaims the fundamental right to close the door, for
this is our home and we have the right to select whom we will to enjoy its
privileges and bounties.
America is basically made and refuses to any the right to alter the plans,
destroy any part of the structure, or rebuild it to their liking.
Knowledge concerning the Constitution. — For a proper appreciation of
our Government the citizen should know what the Constitution is and what it
The selection and combination of these elements was a master achievement of
vision, ability, and governmental genius on the part of the delegates to the
convention. — Atwood.
He should thoroughly understand the purposes of government as set forth in
the Preamble to the Constitution; that the Constitution established a strictly
representative form of government; and the general provisions in regard to
amending the Constitution, when "necessary." All of this is essential to his
proper "regard for the sterling worth of our beneficent heritage."
The only antidote to the erroneous and dangerous ideas of government now
rampant through the world and threatening America is a better understanding of
the meaning, value, and importance of our American philosophy of government as
set up in the Constitution.
This will most effectively meet the propaganda of communism in its attack on
our social, economic, political, and national institutions, which aims to
destroy the family as the foundation of society, our system of capitalism which
has produced the great economic success of America, our republican form of
government, and our spirit of patriotism.
The preservation of the sacred fire of liberty and the destiny of the
republican model of government are justly considered as deeply, perhaps as
finally, staked on the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American
people. — Washington.
If in our case the representative system ultimately fail, popular
governments must be pronounced impossible. No combination of circumstances more
favorable to the experiment can ever be expected to occur. The last hopes of
mankind, therefore, lest with us; and if it should be proclaimed that our
example had become an argument against the experiment, the knell of popular
liberty would be sounded throughout the earth. — Webster.
Name three kinds of world governments.
What is an autocracy?
What are the principal characteristics of autocracy?
What is a democracy?
What are the principal characteristics of a democracy?
What is a republic?
What are the principal characteristics of a republic?
Which form of government did the makers of the Constitution seek to
Name the methods of representative government. Describe them.
What new feature of government was incorporated into the Constitution?
Describe the "American Bill of Rights."
What "individual rights" are formally guarded by the original
What "rights" were added by the first ten amendments?
How was majority rule prevented and popular government preserved?
How were the differences as to representation compromised by the framers of
What is meant by "separation of powers"?
Explain "checks and balances."
Describe the Federal judiciary.
Enumerate the national powers delegated to Congress.
What limitations were placed on the powers of Congress?
Name and define several dangers to representative government.
Name and define the main safeguards of representative government.
How does restricted immigration benefit —
(1) The social life of America?
(2) The economic life of America?
(3) The political life of America?
SECTION X LESSON 10. — PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY
Responsibility of the present ------------------------------------------
American civilization dynamic ----------------------------------------
Individual responsibility -----------------------------------------------
High standards ----------------------------------------------------------
Community and home.
Importance of active citizenship --------------------------------------
Law and order.
Public opinion ----------------------------------------------------------
Responsibility can not be transferred ---------------------------------
Our example of individual responsibility ----------------------------
136. Responsibility of the present. — Civilization is builded upon the
experiences of the past. Any improvements that have been accomplished are the
results of human achievement. No system of living has yet been devised that
relieves the individual of his personal responsibility for the improvement of
human society. By personal effort each individual should pass on to posterity a
civilization better than he found.
The sense of personal responsibility increases with the advancement of
civilization. Not only have desires and wants multiplied, but with the advance
of physical science there is also a quickened moral sentiment and spirit of
philanthropic sympathy; an increasing recognition of the responsibility of each
man for his fellow citizen.
137. American civilization dynamic. — American civilization is expressed in
"power," the power of the individual citizen in the driving force of his
initiative, adventurous spirit, self-reliance and dogged energy. To the
American, life is a great adventure.
Human wants, desires, ambitions, spur mankind to achievements. Never
satisfied, ever progressing, civilization has constantly improved and with the
improvement have come burdens and complexities which add more and more to the
problems of human society.
Through equality of opportunity America gives each individual citizen an
equal chance, yet his ability, intelligence, and character distinguish and
classify him as progress is made.
When America was new, she called upon the racial stocks of the world to give
their best. Out of these she has built a great nation.
The intelligent, though uneducated foreigner, might have continued to live
in his native land without the slightest mental awakening. Once landing upon
American soil, he quickly catches the spirit of his new environment, takes
advantage of the free institutions, and finds opportunity for development to
his fullest capacity.
In modern progress America leads the world. The American citizen, whether
native or foreign born, must recognize his obligations and assume his
responsibilities not only to America but also to the entire world.
138. Individual responsibility. — In the very nature of the organization and
form of our Government, our free institutions, and the lack of all authority
and order other than that created by the dictum of the people, the security and
perpetuity of America rests upon the individual responsibility of her
139. Education. — It is the duty of every citizen to obtain the best
possible education. To shirk this responsibility is to be unworthy of the
"blessings of liberty" and untrue to his own best interest. Every new device,
discovery of science, enlarged market, added production, facility of
communication and transportation, carries with it a demand for an educated
citizenry. Society, economics, local and foreign politics, add their demands
for educated leadership and participation. Greater opportunities await the
educated and fewer the uneducated with each passing year. It is the
responsibility of every citizen to become fully informed, for through education
is found the only sure means of perpetuating and improving our social
140. High standards. — Civilization is not a circle but a pyramid. At its
base is found the constantly increasing mass of humanity. Out of this common
material the world has been busily engaged in building the structure of
No one is compelled to remain at the base of the pyramid who has within
himself the ability to find his way up. From that base have come most of the
great men in history. Few born in riches or high social position have ever
By her system of Government America is at the mercy of those at the base of
the pyramid. If through individual initiative and proper leadership they win
their way toward the apex, they lift America also. If they remain inert,
ignorant, indifferent, they become the common prey of unscrupulous leaders who
seek to weaken or destroy the structure of our Government.
National character. — National character is the sum of every citizen.
The Nation has a right to expect each citizen to maintain high ideals, and he
has a right to expect the same of his neighbor. The resulting measure of
satisfaction should spur any right-thinking individual to such attainment. The
actual worth of a citizen to himself, his community, his country, regardless of
any other accomplishment, is based on the high quality and standard of his
thinking. Obedience to higher impulses builds up self-respect without which no
true success is possible.
Community and home. — The United States has been developed by a
succession of communities, independent of each other, yet closely related in
their social, economic, and political interests. The character of the community
is determined by the character of its homes and the character of its homes is
determined by the character of the individual citizen. He is the only person
upon whom responsibility for community and home can be placed.
141. Importance of active citizenship. — Good government is the particular
responsibility of the individual citizen in whom final authority is vested. It
will be no higher in its ideals nor just in its administration than the sum of
our national character.
The first and paramount duty of every citizen is to have a firsthand
knowledge of the Constitution of the United States. He should learn the
accurate, comprehensive, and masterly statement of the six principles of
government as contained in the Preamble, and the plan for setting up and
maintaining our representative form of government. It is in this document that
individual rights and fundamental duties are set forth.
American citizens are stockholders in a great corporation — the Government
of the United States. They annually spend three and one-half billion dollars in
the cost of government. One citizen out of 13 gainfully employed works for this
corporation. Its operation requires understanding, supervision, and skillful
The citizen is the governor of this Republic through the exercise of his
right to vote — the most sacred right of a free people. He selects its rulers
and decides its issues. The proper exercise of this right requires honesty and
intelligence, and a knowledge concerning the dangerous tendencies that are
threatening our republican form of government. He should weigh the merits of
both men and issues, feeling himself responsible for the selection of proper
persons as the representatives to whom are entrusted the affairs of
Vote. — To preserve American institutions a bigger and better vote is
required — citizens must perform their political duties on election day.
The entire electorate must be taught not only to vote but to vote according
to principle and informed opinion. Our institutions are endangered and are well
worth saving. In the presidential years of 1920 and 1924 scarcely half of the
voters of the country went to the polls. In 1926 only 33 per cent of the
electorate participated. The ultimate result of such indifference upon a
government based upon the principle of the majority is disastrous.
In 1928 more than 7.000.000 young citizens became eligible to vote for the
first time. While the vote, and the whole vote, should be attracted to the
polls, it must be remembered that an unintelligent vote safeguards nothing and
is harmful in its effect.
Public service. — Many citizens are so engrossed in their personal
affairs that they are not willing to devote sufficient time to the business of
government, leaving most important matters to be decided by a minority.
The functions of citizenship are not confined to the enjoyment of personal
rights — they also involve the protection of those rights. Unless the
obligations of the individual citizen are fulfilled, our entire governmental
structure, with all of its rights and privileges, is endangered. The
indifference of individual citizens threatens the destruction of the "blessings
Opportunity for patriotic service calls for leadership and ability, and too
many citizens fail to respond to this obligation. Every citizen should assist
in the administration of law and justice by willingness to render jury service
— nothing is more imperative. He should bear a proportionate part of the burden
of taxation without an attempt at evasion. He should respect the rights of
others both by precept and example. He should be willing to assume the duties
of any public office to which his fellow citizens may call him. He should be
useful and loyal, aiding in all public undertakings through a whole-hearted
cooperation for the welfare of all.
In every national emergency the people have produced their leader — George
Washington, Abraham Lincoln. When diplomacy has failed, as in the World War,
the people have "volunteered."
Law and order. — The best government is that in which justice is most
evenly administered. The better our Government, the more prosperous and
contented the people. Every time the citizen assists the administration of
justice he makes a material contribution to the welfare of all.
Every citizen should observe and respect the law. It is no excuse that if a
certain law interferes with his personal habits, desires, or beliefs he should
disregard it. Absolute acquiescence in the decisions of the majority when
legally expressed is the vital principle of republics.
It is your personal responsibility not to contribute to the defeat of
justice either by evading the law or consenting to its evasion by others.
Statutory laws are presumed to be just and for the benefit of all law-abiding
citizens. No greater responsibility rests upon the citizen than to demand just
laws and their enforcement. There is nothing more degrading, more destructive
in its effect upon personal honor and character, than evasion of law, bribery
of officers, or contributing to the delinquency of others.
Respect for its authority, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its
measures, are duties imposed by the fundamental maxims of true liberty. The
basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and alter
their Constitution and Government. But the Constitution which at any time
exists till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people is
sacredly obligatory upon all. The very idea of the power and the right of the
people to establish government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey
the established government. — George Washington — Farewell
The highest test of good citizenship is obedience to all laws. We can not
develop and keep alive the high sense of civic duty and pride by half-hearted
allegiance to the Constitution. There should be no such thing as an oath to
support the Constitution with mental reservation. — W. B. Sicaney.
The law of the State of Illinois provides that every male person above the
age of 18 years must respond to the call of the police officer in securing and
apprehending an offender, and provides a penalty for failure to do so. A good
citizen will never hesitate to inform an officer of any criminal act of which
he has knowledge and to assist in apprehending a criminal and aid the officer
in his prosecution. Under the laws of Illinois a person who has knowledge of a
crime and conceals it is also a criminal.
142. Public opinion. — Within each community there is an invisible,
government which we call "public opinion." Without this force our courts and
police would be powerless in their effort to control. Only in proportion as
public opinion backs the law can it or will it be enforced. To protect the land
from the overflow of our great rivers we erect dikes along their banks. The
moment a "sand boil" appears behind a dike a crew is rushed to the place, and
repairs are made to prevent a break that might bring disaster to thousands.
Public opinion, expressing the true character of home and community, is the
dike that protects America from the overflow of crime, immorality, irreligion,
and injustice, which, if allowed to break through, will do an irreparable
damage to the free institutions of America.
Public opinion reaches an uncommonly high level because every citizen is
called upon to express his own judgment in community and national affairs, and
to work for the betterment of his town, county, State, and country.
It is your personal responsibility to mold and control public opinion.
143. Responsibility can not be transferred. — "Responsibilities gravitate to
the man who can shoulder them and power flows to the man who knows how." The
recognition of the inequality of ability and the equality of moral obligation
makes individual responsibility distasteful to the defective citizen. Efforts
are being made to supplant the individual responsibility of American citizens
with "State responsibility" which destroys self-respect, ambition, and national
character. It demands "State control" which not only promises to relieve the
citizen of his individual responsibility but it also deprives the individual
citizen of his personal liberties.
It is the duty of every American citizen to prevent the destruction of our
Republic and individualistic form of government by any such destructive
144. Our example of individual responsibility. — The closing words of the
Declaration of Independence reveal the seriousness with which the signers
fulfilled their personal responsibility:
"For the support of this Declaration with a firm reliance on the protection
of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes,
and our sacred honor."
In what manner is the American civilization dynamic?
Upon what does the security and perpetuity of America rest?
In what way does education affect the responsibility of the American
Is the Government of America at the mercy of the people? Explain.
Upon what is national character based?
What determines the character of the community and the home?
What is the first obligation of an American citizen?
Name several political responsibilities that test upon every citizen.
What does the successful operation of our Government require?
What two things are necessary for the preservation of our American
To what degree have our citizens availed themselves of the right to
Are the functions of citizenship confined to the enjoyment of personal
How has personal responsibility in times of national emergency been met?
Does personal responsibility require respect for and obedience to all of the
provisions of the Constitution?
What should be the attitude of the individual citizen in reference to the
observance of the law? Of Federal laws? Of State laws? Of municipal
Why is public opinion of such a high standard?
Can individual responsibility be transferred? Explain.
What would be the effect of "State responsibility"?
How seriously did the signers of the Declaration of Independence assume
their personal responsibilities?
SECTION XI LESSON 11. — SELF-PRESERVATION
Self-preservation the first law of nature -----------------------------
Preservation of life and property -------------------------------------
National defense the bulwark of self-preservation ------------------ 147
Freedom not a gift.
Preservation of philosophy of government -------------------------- 148
Preparedness a necessity -----------------------------------------------
America not militaristic ------------------------------------------------
America not imperialistic ----------------------------------------------
Destructive idealism ----------------------------------------------------
Prepared leadership ----------------------------------------------------
Military policy of the United States -----------------------------------
The State Department --------------------------------------------------
National defense act ----------------------------------------------------
Preparedness an agency for peace ------------------------------------
Moral qualities essential to self-preservation ------------------------
145. Self-preservation the first law of nature. — Possessed at first with a
slight intelligence man's reliance was upon his physical powers; though brutal
in quality, they were necessary for the preservation of life.
By the successive steps of groups, tribes, and small states, mankind evolved
better means of protection: cultivated intelligence; developed habits, customs,
and laws, which in a measure abridged the need of physical force.
146. Preservation of life and property. — To insure the preservation of life
and property America has written into her Constitution absolute guaranties. In
no other country is life and property so hedged about with protective laws —
all securing the inalienable rights of the individual citizen.
The preservation of these rights is a dominant principle of the American
philosophy of government. It limits that government, in writing, to certain
definite powers, and the right is reserved to discharge any and all
governmental servants who infringe upon the written will of the people.
By the system of government set up by our Constitution the people have been
able to regulate the agencies of government and control and direct
corporations, capital, and labor. Mighty as is their power they must not
infringe upon the rights of any private citizen. Neither must the individual
citizen infringe upon the rights of another.
Self-preservation for every citizen is guaranteed by the Constitution and
guarded by the Supreme Court of the United States
147. National defense the bulwark of self-preservation. — That which
preserves our rights has the right to be preserved. The Declaration of
Independence was a "scrap of paper" until made immortal by tho blood and
sacrifice of our patriotic ancestors. The sufferings of Valley Forge, the
courage of Washington, the victory of Yorktown, secured American liberties and
wrote this great document into the hearts of liberty-loving people.
This colony (Massachusetts) is ready, at all times, to spend and be spent in
the cause of America. — Warren — Message to Continental
When the Constitution of the United States was adopted, with the exception
of a small area along the Atlantic coast, America was a wilderness. She had a
population of approximately 3.000,000 people.
By the liberties granted and with unrestricted opportunity the colonials and
pioneers conquered the wilderness, converting it into a land of fertile fields,
great industries, and contented homes, an achievement of little more than 100
Freedom not a gift. — Freedom is not a gift. It has been bought and
paid for in the sacrifices of peace and war. It is laid in long hours of toil,
the swing of the ax in the forest, the campfire of the lonely pioneer, the sod
house of the early settler, the community stockade and the frontier Army post.
Freedom has traveled a long, hard road. None but the strong and courageous have
possessed it and by none others can it be retained.
148. Preservation of philosophy of government. — Some interpret American
liberty as the opportunity to exploit the Nation's resources and people by
propaganda that aims to destroy American institutions. Under the guise of
freedom of speech and press every possible effort is being made to undermine
and destroy the blessings of liberty. The problem of national defense deals not
only with the question of elements but it is also the question of the
preservation of that philosophy of government devised by the founders of this
149. Preparedness a necessity. — With our growth of population, wealth, and
standing among the nations, we have learned that
lack of adequate preparation in time of peace was the most certain way to
encourage attack by other nations.
The security of the Nation has been endangered and lives unnecessarily
sacrificed because of insufficient training and an inadequate number of trained
officers and soldiers to give instruction or assume command.
Wars have been begun which would never have been declared had America been
prepared. Wars have been prolonged through lack of material and trained men to
carry them rapidly forward to a successful issue. Hardships have been suffered
by lack of supplies.
Our lack of preparedness, with its rush of preparation, a personnel
inadequately trained, lack of materiel or its means of manufacture, plus the
immediate danger to national existence, not only created all the elements
required for hasty and extravagant expenditures of money, but caused the
criminal sacrifice of many of our best American citizens.
The Preamble to the Constitution states that one reason for its
establishment is "to provide for the common defense," assigning that duty to
the Federal Government. The "people," through their representatives in
Congress, declare war; the task of carrying on the struggle devolves on the
Army and Navy.
A million men springing to arms overnight would evidence patriotism; but an
army of a million untrained patriots in this advanced day of scientific warfare
150. America not militaristic. — Our Government, from its inception, has
opposed the idea of militarism. So determined were the colonials to prevent any
possible military dominance they placed a positive check upon such control by
making the constitutional provision that money for maintaining the Military
Establishment could not be appropriated for a period longer than two years,
thereby placing in the hands of each succeeding Congress the power to control
through holding the purse strings of the Nation.
Military training is not militaristic. On the contrary, it is greatly
beneficial to the youth of America. It builds men physically, morally, and
intellectually, and inculcates obedience, self-control, leadership, and
151. America not imperialistic. — The United States has acquired a clear
title to every square inch of land which has been added to that of the original
thirteen Colonies. All territory annexed to the United States since 1803 has
been acquired either by treaty or purchase, except Texas and Hawaii, which were
admitted to the Union by their own request. In the latter instance, however,
$200,000 was paid as a compensation to Liliuokalani.
152. Destructive idealism. — The attempt to undermine the Nation from within
is more serious than the threat of armed force from without.
An impractical and destructive idealism called internationalism is being
propagated by certain foreign agitators and is being echoed and reechoed by
many of the Nation's "intellectuals." Its efforts are to combat the spirit of
patriotism, to destroy that spirit of nationalism without which no people can
long endure. History teaches that in proportion as nations lose their sense of
nationalism they become decadent. Having lost their sense of pride in the
traditions of the past, their respect for national standards, their love for
country, their spirit of patriotism — the end is near.
Pacifism creates a spirit of compromise with the very factors which operate
to weaken the American Government. It attempts to force the Government into
poses of internationalism and false altruism, destructive of the real interests
of the American people.
Pacifism is baneful in its influence. It promotes distrust of country;
debases the spirit of nationalism; is destructive of patriotism; undermines the
policy of national defense; cooperates with destructive forces for the
overthrow of national ideals and institutions.
Experience has taught us that neither the pacific dispositions of the
American people nor the pacific character of their political institutions can
altogether exempt them from that strife which appears beyond the ordinary lot
of nations to be incident to the actual pride of the world, and the same
faithful monitor demonstrates that a certain degree of preparation for war is
not only indispensable to avert disasters in (he onset, but affords also the
best security for the continuance of peace. — Madison.
153. Prepared leadership. — Leadership is as difficult to develop in the
Army as in business. The methods that insure success in one are applicable to
the other. One of the aims of military training is to produce leaders. The more
competent they become the higher the position they are sure to attain. So
efficient is the training received by the officers in the Regular Army that
many are invited to resign and accept positions of grave responsibility in the
business world. In comparative measure efficiency in leadership is also
developed in enlisted men, in students of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps,
and in trainees of the citizens' military training camps.
Business invariably gives preference to the young man who has had training
in military leadership. Many industries provide their employees with 30 days'
vacation on pay for the purpose of attendance at a summer training camp,
knowing that they will return to their employment better equipped, better
disciplined, and in every way much more valuable to themselves and their
All the wars of the future will include science and machinery. Trained men
will be needed to efficiently use these materials, for efficient leadership,
education, skill, technique, training, and thorough discipline are as necessary
as loyalty and willingness to serve.
154. Military policy of the United States. — The military policy of the
United States is defensive, not offensive. America will go to war only in
defense of the Nation, and no other nation need maintain a ship or a soldier as
protection against a war of aggression instituted by the United States. America
desires no territory belonging to other peoples. She seeks only
self-preservation and the privilege of self-determination in peace with all the
nations of the earth.
Safety from external danger is the most powerful dictation of
national conduct. — Hamilton.
The genius and character of our institutions are peaceful * * * and the
power to declare war was not conferred upon Congress for the purposes of
aggression or aggrandizement, but to enable the General Government to vindicate
by arms, if it should become necessary, its own rights and the rights of its
citizens. — United States Supreme Court.
165. The State Department. — By the means of arbitration and treaties the
State Department endeavors to settle international disputes. It is only after
such methods have failed that the United States enters into war to enforce or
protect its principles.
America has always endeavored to maintain peaceful relations with other
nations. Yet practically every generation has been compelled to take up arms
either in defense of the Nation or the principles set forth in her
The attitude of the American Government toward other nations is —
To cherish peace and free intercourse with all nations having corresponding
dispositions; to maintain sincere neutrality toward belligerent nations; to
prefer in all cases amicable discussion and reasonable accommodation of
differences to a decision of them by an appeal to arms; to exclude foreign
intrigues and foreign partialities, so degrading to all countries and so
baneful to free ones. — Madison.
166. National defense act. — The national defense act of 1920, amended to
include March 4, 1927, provides:
That the Army of the United States shall consist of the Regular Army, the
National Guard while in the service of the United States, and the Organized
Reserves, including the Officers' Reserve Corps and the Enlisted Reserve
Except in time of war or similar emergency when the public safety demands it
the number of enlisted men in the Regular Army shall not exceed 280,000,
including the Philippine Scouts.
The total authorized number of enlisted men, not including the Philippine
Scouts, is at present fixed at 125,000.
Regular Army. — The Regular Army consists of approximately 118,000
enlisted men and some 11,500 officers. A large part of this force is used for
garrison purposes at home and abroad. Those at home spend about eight months of
the year in their own training and in intensive preparation for the work
required of them in summer training camps.
The Regular Army also conducts the training of the Reserve Officers'
Training Corps, the Organized Reserves, and the National Guard. Officers and
men of the Regular Army are qualified to impart physical, mental, and moral
training of the highest character. The very nature of their work makes them
specialists in this field. No business or profession demands stronger character
and ability. No group is more carefully disciplined, and nowhere will be found
greater loyalty and honor. To train with and serve under the officers and
enlisted men of the Regular Army is to be afforded an opportunity for personal
betterment which any wide-nwake young American should be eager to accept.
National Guard. — The second amendment to the Constitution provides
A well-regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State,
the right of people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed.
Prior to the national defense act of 1916 it was left to the States to
provide an organized militia adequate in numbers, equipment and training to
police the State in time of riot or insurrection; it was also to be used by the
National Government in time of war with a foreign power. With the addition of a
small standing Army the forces thus provided were presumed sufficient for
national defense. Under the national defense act of 1920 the National Guard, in
time of peace, is under the command of officers appointed by the governor of
the State, but their training and administration is supervised by officers of
the Regular Army assigned for that purpose. In time of war the National Guard,
as a component of the Army of the United States, is immediately called into
national service. Together with the Regular Army, it serves as the first line
of defense while the reserve forces are being organized and equipped.
An efficient Militia is authorized and contemplated by the Constitution and
required by the spirit and safety of free government. — Madison.
Organized Reserves. — The Organized Reserves, together with the other
components of the Army, form the basis for a complete and immediate
mobilization for national defense in any national emergency declared by
Congress. Each reserve unit is now organized with its officers and a few
enlisted specialists. In time of war these units will assemble at points
designated, there to be equipped and trained. Every member of the Reserve
Officers' Training Corps and all graduates of the citizens' military training
camps who have qualified for leadership and have been commissioned would be
required to report to his proper station on the designated day.
To expose some men to the perils of the battle field while others are left
to reap large gains from the distress of their country is not in harmony with
our ideal of equality. — President Coolidge.
157. Preparedness an agency for peace. — The desire for peace is the spirit
of America, but that peace must be dynamic, not a peace characterized by
weakness of purpose or lack of courage.
"Common defenselessness" is in opposition to the spirit of the Constitution.
The best guaranty of peace is a physically fit people inspired by the spirit of
the Constitution and strong enough to defend themselves against any foe.
True Americans should be prepared to defend our Nation against those
influences that will not only destroy all patriotic ideals that have been
acquired through years of struggle but which advocate the overthrow of our
Government by force. Our very freedom allows enemies within to operate with
appalling boldness. They have powerful allies in the persons of those who would
abolish all of our defenses — who would have peace at any price.
The writings and utterances of the men who laid the foundations upon which
posterity has been called to erect the superstructure of this Nation
continually remind the citizen of the necessity to provide for an adequate
defense of the blessings of liberty that, to insure them for future
generations, we must be strong enough to protect and defend our country and our
institutions from any hostile aggression, whether from without or within.
By diffusing through the mass of the Nation the elements of military
discipline and instruction; by augmenting and distributing warlike preparations
applicable to future use; by evincing the zeal and valor with which they will
be employed and the cheerfulness with which every necessary burden will be
borne, a greater respect for our rights and a longer duration of our future
peace are promised than could be expected without these proofs of the national
character and resources. — Madison.
168. Moral qualities essential to self-preservation. — The American citizen
must emphasize those qualities of character which mark him as truly worthy of
the privileges of independence and liberty. His claim to self-respect is sound
only as he upholds the self-respect of his fellow citizens. His honor is sacred
only as he protects the honor of his country. He values liberty and
independence only in so far as he is willing to pay the price for its
It takes more than eloquent speeches and hot words to accomplish sublime
purpose — it takes risk; it takes sacrifice. It takes the spirit of a Nathan
Hale, who, having been sent by General Washington to bring intelligence
concerning the British in New York City, was captured within the British lines
and executed as a spy by order of Sir William Howe, the British commander. His
last words were: "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my
country." This is the spirit that won our liberties. It takes the same spirit
to preserve our liberties.
"We mutually pledge our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor." —
Signers of the Declaration of Independence.
The moral qualities essential to self-preservation are —
The will to win.
The courage to endure.
The willingness to die.
How is the preservation of life and property assured?
What is the bulwark of self-preservation? Explain.
How can the American philosophy of government be preserved?
Why is preparedness necessary?
Who declare war?
Is America militaristic? Explain.
How does military training benefit the youth of America?
Is America imperialistic? Explain.
What is meant by "internationalism"?
What are some of the baneful influences of pacifism?
What are the essential qualifications of leadership?
How can we best provide for the peace and security of our Nation?
Describe the military policy of the United States.
How does the State Department contribute to peace?
What is the national defense act?
What are some of its provisions?
Name and describe the three components of the Army of the United States.
In what way is preparedness an agency for peace?
What moral qualities are essential to self-preservation?
What provisions for national defense are contained in the Constitution?
Why should military service in time of war be determined by the National
Government instead of the State or the individual?
SECTION XII LESSON 12. — THE AMERICAN FLAG
Significance of elements -----------------------------------------------
Progress of the flag -----------------------------------------------------
Allocution of the stars -------------------------------------------------
Inspiration of the flag --------------------------------------------------
The future of the flag --------------------------------------------------
Kinds of national flags -------------------------------------------------
Federal laws -------------------------------------------------------------
Method of displaying the flag -----------------------------------------
When flown with other flags.
Reveille and retreat.
Signal of distress.
Disposition of worn-out flags -----------------------------------------
Military salute to the flag ----------------------------------------------
National anthem --------------------------------------------------------
National salute ----------------------------------------------------------
Initial events of the American flag ------------------------------------
159. Design accepted. — Gen. George Washington, Robert Morris, and Col.
George Ross were appointed a committee by the Continental Congress to produce a
flag for the United States of North America. Their report was approved and the
design adopted on the 14th of June, 1777. By resolution Congress decided that
the flag of the 13 United States should be 13 stripes, alternate red and white,
and that the Union be 13 white stars on a blue field.
160. Significance of elements. — In describing its design Washington said:
"We take the stars from heaven, the red from our mother country, separating it
by white stripes, thus showing that we have separated from her, and the white
stripes shall go down to posterity representing liberty."
The Continental Congress defined the special significance of the chosen
colors to be: White, suggesting purity and innocence; red, hardness and valor;
blue, vigilance, perseverance, and justice.
The stars of the Union were not merely a collection but a new constellation
representing a new ideal in political and governmental
affairs. The newly formed States were to develop under the control of laws,
not independently nor indifferent to each other — but a Union, one and
161. Progress of the flag. — After 1812 the flag moved west with the
pioneers who explored the vast regions beyond the Alleghenies, the Mississippi
Valley, the Rocky Mountains, to the shores of the Pacific Ocean, and the
islands of the sea. Representing the United States, the flag flies today in
Alaska, Hawaii, the Philippines, Porto Rico, Guam, Tutuila, Panama, and at the
To be born under the American flag is to be the child of a king and to build
a home under the Stars and Stripes is to establish a royal house. Alone of all
flags it expresses the sovereignty of the people, which endures when all else
passes away. Speaking with their voice, it has the sanctity of revelation. He
who lives under it and is loyal to it is loyal to truth and justice everywhere.
He who lives under it and is disloyal to it is a traitor to the human race
everywhere. What could be saved if the flag of the American Nation were to
perish? — President Coolidge.
162. Allocation of the stars. — President William H. Taft on October 25,
1912, by Executive order designated the specific location of the stars and
their definite representations. They were to be arranged in six rows of eight
stars, each star to symbolize a State in the order of its ratification of the
3. New Jersey.
8. South Carolina.
9. New Hampshire.
11. New fork.
12. North Carolina.
13. Rhode Island.
35. West Virginia.
39. North Dakota.
40. South Dakota.
47. New Mexico.
163. Inspiration of the flag. — Like the cross, the flag is sacred. It
represents the living country and is itself considered a living thing. It flies
not only as the symbol of organization and protection, it also calls to duty.
To the flag of the United States, and all that it represents, every citizen of
America should render respect, reverence, and devotion.
As you feel about your flag, so you feel about your Nation. Your flag, my
flag, our flag! May we honor her as she honors us!
164. The future of the flag. — This flag, the emblem of justice and
government, stands for the just use of undisputed national power. No nation is
going to doubt our power to assert its rights.
It is henceforth to stand for self-possession, dignity, for the assertion of
the right of one nation to serve the other nations of the world — an emblem
that will not condescend to be used for purposes of aggression and
self-aggrandizement; that it is too great to be debased by-selfishness; that
has vindicated its right to be honored by all nations of the world and feared
by none who do righteousness. — Woodrow Wilson.
165. Kinds of national flags. — There are four kinds of national flags:
Flags which are flown at military posts or on ships and used for display
generally; small flags or ensigns which are used on small boats; colors which
are carried by unmounted regiments; and standards which are carried by mounted
regiments, and are, therefore, smaller in size than colors.
There is prescribed in Army Regulations a knotted fringe of yellow silk on
the national standards of mounted regiments and on the national colors of
unmounted regiments. However, there is no law which either requires or
prohibits the placing of a fringe on the flag of the United States. Ancient
custom sanctions the use of fringe on the regimental colors and standards, but
there seems to be no good reason or precedent for its use on other flags.
166. Federal laws. — There is no Federal law now in force pertaining to the
manner of displaying, hanging, or saluting the United Stales flag, or
prescribing any ceremonies that should be observed in connection therewith.
There are but four Federal laws on the statute books that have any bearing
upon this subject:
(1) The act of Congress approved February 20, 1905, providing that a
trade-mark can not be registered which consists of or comprises "the flag, coat
of arms, or other insignia of the United States. or any simulation
(2) A joint resolution of Congress approved May 8, 1914, authorizing the
display of the flag on Mother's Day.
(3) The act of Congress approved February 8, 1917, providing certain
penalties for the desecration, mutilation, or improper use of the flag within
the District of Columbia.
(4) The act of Congress approved May 16, 1918, providing, when the United
States is at war. for the dismissal from the service of any employee or
official of the United States Government who criticizes in an abusive or
violent manner the flag of the United States.
Several States of the Union have enacted laws which have more or less
bearing upon the general subject, and it seems probable that many counties and
municipalities have also passed ordinances concerning this matter to govern
action within their own jurisdiction.
No present Federal statute punishing the desecration or abuse of the flag,
in time of peace or in time of war. — Attorney General John G.
A majority of States have passed acts designed to punish the desecration of
the National flag and to prevent its use for advertising purposes. The
constitutionality of such State legislation was upheld by the Supreme Court in
Halter v. Nebr., 205 U. S. 34.
There is a Federal statute similar in terms to many of the State laws which
punishes the improper use of the flag in the District of Columbia — act
February 8, 1917, chapter 34 (39 Stat. 900), but there is no Federal enactment
which punishes such use outside the District.
167. Method of displaying the flag. — There are certain fundamental rules of
heraldry which indicate the proper method of displaying the flag. There are
also certain rules of good taste which, if observed, would insure the proper
use of the flag.
(1) The union of the flag is the honor point; the right arm is the sword arm
and therefore the point of danger and hence the place of honor.
(2) When the national flag is carried, as in a procession, with another flag
or flags, the place of the national flag is on the right — i. e.. the flag's
(3) When the national flag and another flag are displayed together, as
against a wall from crossed staffs, the national flag should be on the right,
the flag's own right — i. e., the observer's left — and its staff should be in
front of the staff of the other flag.
(4) When a number of flags are grouped and displayed from staffs the
national flag should be in the center or at the highest point of the group.
(5) When the national flag is hung either horizontally or vertically against
a wall the union should be uppermost and to the flag's own right — i. e., to
the observer's left. When displayed from a staff projecting horizontally or at
an angle from a window sill or the front of a building, the same rules should
(6) When the flag is suspended between buildings so as to hang over the
middle of the street, a simple rule is to hang the union to the north in an
east and west street or to the east in a north and south street.
When flown with other flags. — When flags of States or cities or
pennants of societies are flown on the same halyard with the national flag, the
national flag must always be at the peak. When flown from adjacent staffs the
national flag should be hoisted first. There is a chaplain's flag authorized in
Army Regulations, but there is no church pennant prescribed. Neither the
chaplain's flag nor any other flag or pennant is authorized to be placed above
or to the right of the national flag.
International usage. — The display of the flag of one nation above
that of any other nation in time of peace is forbidden. When the flags of two
or more nations are to be displayed they should be flown from separate staffs
or from separate halyards, of equal size and on the same level.
General uses. — There is no Federal law governing the subject, but it
is suggested —
That the national flag when not flown from a staff be always hung flat,
whether indoors or out.
It should not be festooned over doorways or arches nor tied in a bowknot nor
fashioned into a rosette.
When used on a rostrum it should be displayed above and behind the speaker's
desk. It should never be used to cover the speaker's desk nor to drape over the
front of the platform. For this purpose as well as for decoration in general,
bunting of the national colors should be used, arranged with the blue above,
the while in the middle, and the red below.
Under no circumstances should the flag be draped over chairs or benches, nor
should any object or emblem of any kind be placed above or upon it, nor should
it be hung where it can be easily contaminated or soiled.
No lettering of any kind should ever be placed upon the flag. It should not
be used as a portion of a woman's costume nor of a man's athletic clothing. A
very common misuse of the flag is the practice of embroidering the flag on
cushions and handkerchiefs, and the printing of the flag on paper napkins.
These practices, while not strictly a violation of any present Federal law,
certainly are lacking in respect and dignity and can not be considered as
evidence of good taste.
There is no objection to flying the flag at night on civilian property,
provided it is not so flown for advertising purposes.
Reveille and retreat. — It is the practice in the Army, each day in
the year, to hoist the flag briskly at sunrise, irrespective of the condition
of the weather, and to lower it slowly and ceremoniously at sunset, indicating
the commencement and cessation of the activities of the day.
Memorial Day. — On Memorial Day (May 30) at all Army posts and
stations the national flag is displayed at half staff from sunrise until noon
and at full staff from noon until sunset.
When flown at half staff the flag is always first hoisted to the peak, the
honor point, and then slowly lowered to the half-staff position in honor of
those who gave their lives to their country, but before lowering the flag for
the day it is raised again to the head of the staff, for the Nation lives and
the flag is the living symbol of the Nation.
Unveiling statues. — When flags are used in connection with the
unveiling of a statue or monument, they should not be allowed to fall to the
ground, but should be carried aloft to wave out, forming a distinctive feature
during the remainder of the ceremony.
Military funerals. — When the national flag is used on a bier or
casket at a military funeral, the rule is the reverse of that for hanging
vertically against a wall. The union should be placed at the head of the casket
and over the left shoulder of the soldier. The casket should be carried foot
first. The flag should not be lowered into the grave and in no case should it
be allowed to touch the ground.
When a body is shipped to relatives by the War Department for private
burial, the flag which drapes the shipping case is turned over to relatives
with the remains for use at the funeral, and may be retained by them.
Patriotic occasions. — It is becoming the practice throughout the
country among civilians to display the national flag on all patriotic
occasions, especially on the following days: Lincoln's Birthday, February 12;
Washington's Birthday, February 22; Mother's Day, second Sunday in May;
Memorial Day, May 30; Flag Day, June 14; Independence Day, July 4; Armistice
Day, November 11.
In certain localities other special days are observed in the same
Signal of distress. — The flag should never be hung nor displayed
union down except as a signal of distress at sea.
168. Disposition of worn-out flags. — Old or worn-out flags should not be
used either for banners or for any secondary purpose.
When a flag is in such a condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem for
display, it should be destroyed, preferably by burning or by some other method
lacking in any suggestion of irreverence or disrespect to the emblem
representing our country.
169. Military salute to the flag. — When officers and enlisted men pass the
national flag not incased or when the national flag is carried in a parade or
procession, they will render honors as follows: If in civilian dress and
covered, they will uncover, holding the headdress opposite the left shoulder
with the right hand; if in uniform, covered, or uncovered, or in civilian dress
uncovered, they will salute with the right-hand salute.
170. National anthem. — The musical composition familiarly known as the
Star-Spangled Banner is designated as the national air of the United States of
America. When played all officers and enlisted men present and not in formation
are required to stand at attention, facing the music, except when the flag is
being lowered at sunset, on which occasion they are required to face toward the
flag. If in uniform they shall render the prescribed salute at the first note
of the anthem, retaining the position of salute until the last note of the
anthem. If not in uniform and covered, they are required to stand and uncover
at the first note of the anthem, holding the headdress opposite the left
shoulder until the last note is played, except in inclement weather when the
headdress may be held slightly raised. The custom of rising and remaining
standing and uncovered while the Star-Spangled Banner is being played has grown
in favor among civilians.
The Star-Spangled Banner should be played through without repetition of any
part not required to be repeated to make it complete. It should not be played
as part of a medley nor for dance music, nor at any point in a program or
performance except at the beginning or the end. It is the practice in the Army
to play the Star-Spangled Banner at the end of a musical program.
171. National salute. — The national salute to the American flag requires
one gun for every star.
NOTE. — It is not within the province of the War Department to force upon
persons not in the military service the regulations governing the use of the
flag within the Army.
172. Initial events of the American flag.
June 14, 1777: The first American flag, made by Betsy Ross, was adopted by
the Continental Congress as the flag of the United States of North America.
1787-1790: The Stars and Stripes first carried around the world by the ship
August 2, 1777: An improvised Stars and Stripes hoisted at Fort Stanwix, N.
November 1, 1777: The American flag was first flown at sea by Capt. Paul
Jones. He sailed to carry the news to France that Burgoyne had surrendered.
February 14. 1778: The first salute given the American flag, at Quiberon
Bay, France, when the French Admiral La Motte Piquet, saluted the flag on the
Ranger, commanded by Capt. Paul Jones.
September 11, 1777: The American flag first went into battle, receiving its
baptism of blood at the Brandywine.
September 13. 1814: Francis Scott Key wrote the Star-Spangled Banner during
the battle at Fort McHenry, in Baltimore Harbor. It was later officially
designated as the national anthem.
July 24. 1866: First American flag manufactured from American material
hoisted over the Capitol at Washington. Previously the bunting had been
manufactured outside the United States.
Explain the significance of the "elements" in the American flag.
Describe the "progress" of the flag.
Which star is allotted to your State? Why?
What is meant by the "inspiration of the flag"?
What is its message to you?
There are how many kinds of national flags? Name them.
What Federal laws relate to the flag?
Should the American flag ever be used as an advertising device? Explain.
Describe the methods of displaying the flag.
When flown with other flags what is the position of the American flag?
What is the international usage?
What suggestions are made as to general uses?
How is the flag flown on Memorial Day, and what is its significance?
In unveiling statues, how should the flag be used?
Describe the use of the flag at military funerals.
On what special occasions is it customary to display the American flag?
What is the position of the flag when used as a signal of distress?
Describe the military salute to the flag.
How should the national anthem be played? What should the audience do?
What is the national salute to the flag? Explain.
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Edited by HARRY ATWOOD
Showing all portions of the original Constitution which have become obsolete
inclosed in brackets in bold type, and all portions which hare been modified or
supplanted by amendment in bold italics, with notes indicating the amendments
by which the changes were made
Our Constitution is the foundation upon which this Republic rests. It is now
the oldest written constitution functioning in the world and is quite generally
conceded the wisest plan of government ever conceived.
Under its beneficent influence we began to solve problems and secure
individual comforts and privileges that had baffled philosophers and statesmen
for ages. We have harmonized into a splendid and loyal citizenship people of
many nationalities coming to our shores with varying ambitions and ideals, and
have made orderly progress unparalleled in history until we have become the
leading nation of the world.
In studying the Constitution, it is essential to have clearly in mind what
portions have been modified or supplanted by amendment and what portions have
become obsolete. The changes are clearly indicated in this edition.
When the Constitution was written our country was in a condition of
bankruptcy, chaos, and anarchy. Within three years after its adoption a most
favorable condition for orderly progress had been established. That beneficent
transformation wrought by the Constitution is one of the most amazing facts in
The men who wrote the Constitution had great mental acumen, political
understanding, and moral courage. Their lives had been devoted largely to study
and thought concerning government and to rendering public service. They were
politically minded in the sense that Edison and Marconi are electrically
minded; that Lindbergh and Chamberlain are aviation minded; that Socrates and
Emerson were philosophically minded; that Newton and Kepler were scientifically
To regard the Constitution merely as a statement of principles and an
enumeration of rights and guarantees results in confusion and a false concept.
It is a statement of the purposes of government, and the statement of a plan
for setting up and administering a Federal representative government in harmony
with the purposes to which it was dedicated.
Every proper activity of government can be classified under one or more of
the six great purposes set forth in the Preamble. The plan for the division of
powers into legislative, executive, and judicial departments, combining proper
independence with means for helpful cooperation between those departments under
well-balanced restraints, makes possible a scientific administration of
The Constitution is very much the kind of a plan for handling the problems
of government that the alphabet is for handling the problems of language; that
the scale is for handling the problems of music; that the ten digits are for
handling the problems of arithmetic.
Notwithstanding the vital importance of the Constitution to the well-being
of this Republic, the number of persons who know much about it is tragically
small. Increasing knowledge of its meaning and value will bring increasing
desire for better understanding.
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES PREAMBL
"We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union,
establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common
defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to
ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the
United States of America.
THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT
Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a
Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of
THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
Sec. 2. (1) The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen
every second year by the people of the several
States, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications
requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State
(2) No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the
age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States,
and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he
shall be chosen.1
(3) Representatives and direct taxes (except income)2 shall be
apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union
according to their respective numbers, — which shall be determined by adding
to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a
term of years — and excluding Indians not taxed, — three-fifths of all
other persons.3 The actual enumeration shall be made within
three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and
within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law
direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty
thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; [and until
such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to
choose 3; Massachusetts, 8; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, 1;
Connectictit, 5; New York, 6; New Jersey, 4; Pennsylvania, 8; Delaware, 1;
Maryland, 6; Virginia, 10; North Carolina, 5; South Carolina, 5; and Georgia,
(4) When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the
Executive Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such
(5) The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other
officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.
THE UNITED STATES SENATE
Sec. 3. (1) The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two
Senators from each State, chosen by the — Legislature 5 —
thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.
(2) Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The
seats of the Senators of the first class shall be
1 See Amendment XIV, section 3
2 Insert. See Amendment XVI.
3 See Amendment XIII and sections 1 and 2 of Amendment XIV.
4 Obsolete since 1793
5 See Amendment XVII, paragraph 1,
vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the
expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the
sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year: — and if
vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the
legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments
until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such
(3) No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of
thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall
not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be
(4) The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the
Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.
(5) The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro
tempore in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the
office of President of the United States.
(6) The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When
sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the
President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and
no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the
(7) Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of
honor, trust, or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall
nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and
punishment, according to law.
ORGANIZATION OF CONGRESS
Sec. 4. (1) The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators
and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature
thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such
regulations, — except as to the places of choosing
(2) The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such
meetings shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law
appoint a different day.
Sec. 6. (1) Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns. and
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a
quorum to do business; but a smaller number may ad-
1 See Amendment XVII, paragraph 2. 2 See Amendment
XIV, lection 8. 3 See Amendment XVII.
journ from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of
absent members in such manner and under such penalties as each house may
(2) Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its
members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds expel a
(3) Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to
time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require
secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question
shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the
(4) Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place
than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.
Sec. 6. (1) The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation
for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of
the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach
of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session
of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and
for any speech or debate in either house they shall not be questioned in any
(2) No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United
States which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been
increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the United
States shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office.
Sec. 7. (1) All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of
Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on
(2) Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the
Senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the
United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it,
with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall
enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it.
If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the
bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by
which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and if approved by two-thirds of that
house it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses
shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the
names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the
journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the
President, within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been
presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed
it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return; in which case
it shall not be a law.
(3) Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate
and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of
adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and
before the same shall take effect shall be approved by him, or being
disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of
Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case
of a bill.
POWERS VESTED IN CONGRESS
Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power:
(1) To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts
and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States;
but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United
(2) To borrow money on the credit of the United States.
(3) To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States,
and with the Indian tribes.
(4) To establish an uniform rule of naturalization and uniform laws on the
subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States.
(5) To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix
the standard of weights and measures.
(6) To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and
current coin of the United States.
(7) To establish post-offices and post-roads.
(8) To promote the progress of science and useful arts by securing for
limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective
writings and discoveries,
(9) To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court
(10) To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas,
and offenses against the law of nations.
(11) To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules
concerning captures on land and water.
(12) To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use
shall be for a longer term than two years.
(13) To provide and maintain a navy.
(14) To makes rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval
(15) To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the
Union, suppress insurrection, and repel invasions.
(16) To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and
for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United
States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment of the officers,
and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline
prescribed by Congress.
(17) To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such
district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular
States and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the Government of the
United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the
consent of the legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the
erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful
(18) To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into
execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this
Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or
RESTRAINTS FEDERAL AND STATE
Sec. 9. [(1) The migration or importation of such persons as any of the
States now existing shall think proper to admit shall not he prohibited by the
Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or
duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each
(2) The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended,
unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.
(3) No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.
(4) No capitation or other direct tax (except income)10 shall be
laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed
to be taken.
(5) No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State.
(6) No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to
the ports of one State over those of another, nor shall
9 Obsolete since 1808.
10 Insert. See Amendment XVI.
vessels bound to or from one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties
(7) No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of
appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts
and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.
(8) No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States. And no
person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, without the
consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of
any kind whatever from any king, prince, or foreign state.
Sec. 10. (1) No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or
confederation, grant letters of marque and reprisal, coin money, emit bills of
credit, make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts,
pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation
of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.
(2) No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or
duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for
executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and imposts,
laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury
of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and
control of the Congress.
(3) No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of
tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement
or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war,
unless actually invaded or in such imminent danger as will not admit of
ARTICLE II THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT
Section 1. (1) The executive power shall be vested in a President of the
United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four
years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same term, be
elected as follows:
(2) Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may
direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and
Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no
Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under
the United States, shall be appointed an elector.11
11 See Amendment XIV, Section 3.
(3) The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot
for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same
State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for,
and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify,
and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States,
directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in
the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the
certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the
greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority
of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who
have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of
Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President;
and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the
said House shall, in like manner, choose the President. But in choosing the
President the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each
State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or
members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall
be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the
person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the
Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes,
the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice-President."
(4) The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the
day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same
throughout the United States.
(5) No person except a natural born citizen [or a citizen of the United
States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution]12 shall be
eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to
that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years and
been fourteen years a resident within the United States."
(6) In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death,
resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said
office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by
law provide for the case of removal, death, resigna-
12 Supplanted by Amendment XII.
14 See Amendment XIV, Section 3.
tion, or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what
officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly
until the disability be removed or a President shall be elected.
(7) The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a
compensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period
for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that
period any other emolument from the United States or any of them.
(8) Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the
following oath or affirmation:
"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office
of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability,
preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."
Sec. 2. (1) The President shall be commander-in-chief of the Army and Navy
of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called
into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in
writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon
any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall
have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United
States, except in cases of impeachment.
(2) He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate,
to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he
shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate shall
appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme
Court, and all other officers of the United States whose appointments are not
herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law; but the
Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they
think proper in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of
(3) The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen
during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which will expire at
the end of their next session.
Sec. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the
state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he
shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions,
convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between
them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time
as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public
ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall
commission all the officers of the United States.
Sec. 4. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United
States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of,
treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
THE JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT
Section 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one
Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to
time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts,
shall hold their offices during good behavior and shall, at stated times,
receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished during
their continuance in office.
Sec. 2. (1) The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity,
arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties
made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting
ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and
maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a
party; to controversies between two or more States; — between a State and
citizens of another State;15 — between citizens of different
States; between citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of
different States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign
states, — citizens or subjects.15
(2) In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls
and those in which a State shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have
original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme
Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such
exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.
(3) The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by
jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall
have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the trial shall
be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.
Sec. 3. (1) Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying
war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving
15 See Amendment XI.
them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the
testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open
(2) The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but
no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except
during the life of the person attainted.
INTERSTATE AND FEDERAL RELATIONS ARTICLE IV
RELATION OF THE STATES TO EACH OTHER
Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public
acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress
may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and
proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.
Sec. 2. (1) The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges
and immunities of citizens in the several States.
(2) A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who
shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the
Executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be
removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime.
(3) [No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws
thereof, escaping into another shall, in consequence of any law or regulation
therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on
claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.] 16
RELATION OF THE UNITED STATES TO STATES AND TERRITORIES
Sec. 3. (1) New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but
no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other
State, nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or parts
of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as
well as of the Congress.
(2) The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules
and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the
United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to
prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State.
Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a
republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion,
and, on application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the
Legislature can not be convened), against domestic violence.
PROVISION FOR AMENDING THE CONSTITUTION
The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary,
shall propose amendments this Constitution, or, on the application of the
Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for
proposing amendments, which in either case, shall be valid to all intents and
purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of
three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in three-fourths
thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the
Congress; provided [that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one
thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and
fourth clauses in the Ninth Section of the First Article; and]17
that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in
(1) All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of
this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under this
Constitution as under the Confederation.
SUPREMACY OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT
(2) This Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall be made
in pursuance thereof and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the
authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the
judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or
laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
PLEDGE — NO RELIGIOUS TEST
(3) The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of
the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both
of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or
affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be
required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United
The ratification of the conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for
the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the
Done in Convention by the unanimous consent of the States present the
seventeenth day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred
and eighty-seven and of the independence of the United States of America the
twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names,
George Washington, President
and delegate from Virginia
Delegates Edmund Randolph and George Mason of Virginia and Elbridge Gerry of
Massachusetts were present on the last day of the Convention but refused to
sign the Constitution.
The following delegates were not present on the last day of the Convention,
but a goodly portion of them were in favor of the Constitution: W. Oliver
Ellsworth of Connecticut; William Churchill Houston of New Jersey; John Caleb
Strong of Massachusetts; William Pierce and William Houston of Georgia; William
Richardson Davie and Alexander Martin of North Carolina; James McClurg and
George Wythe of Virginia; Robert Yates and W. John Lansing of New York; and
John Francis Mercer and Luther Martin of Maryland.
Many people seem to have the impression that John Hancock, John Adams,
Thomas Jefferson, and Patrick Henry were delegates to the Constitutional
Convention, but none of them were.
||William Samuel Johnson
Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer
Spaight Hugh Williamson
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
(The first ten, proposed September 25, 1789; adopted June 15, 1790)
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or
prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or
of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition
the government for a redress of grievances.
A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State,
the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.
No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the
consent of the owner; nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and
effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and
no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or
affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the
persons or things to be seized.
No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime,
unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising
in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time
of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense
to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any
criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life,
liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be
taken for public use, without just compensation.
In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy
and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the
crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously
ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the
accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory
process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of
counsel for his defense.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty
dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a
jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States than
according to the rules of the common law.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel
and unusual punishments inflicted.
The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed
to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor
prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to
ARTICLE XI (Proposed September 6, 1794; adopted January 8, 1798)
The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to
any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United
States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign
(This amendment modifies paragraph 1, section 2, of Article III.)
ARTICLE XII (Proposed December 12, 1803; adopted September 25, 1804)
The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for
President and Vice-President, one of whom at least shall not be an inhabitant
of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person
voted for as President, and in. distinct ballots the person voted for as
Vice-President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as
President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of
votes for each, which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed,
to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed, to the President
of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate
and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall
then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President
shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of
electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons
having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for
as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot,
the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by
States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this
purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and
a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House
of Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice
shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then
the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other
constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest
number of votes as Vice-President shall be the Vice-President if such number be
a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a
majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list the Senate shall choose
the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the
whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary
to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of
President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.
(This amendment supplants paragraph 3, section 1, of Article II.)
ARTICLE XIII (Proposed February 1, 1865; adopted December 18, 1865)
Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment
for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within
the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
ARTICLE XIV (Proposed June 16, 1866; adopted July 21, 1868)
Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject
to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State
wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge
the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any
State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of
law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the
Sec. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States
according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in
each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any
election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the
United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers
of a State, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the
male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age and citizens of
the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in
rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced
in the proportion which the number of such male citizen shall bear to the whole
number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
(Sections 1 and 2 of this amendment modify paragraph 3, section 2, of
Sec. 3. No person shall be a Senator, or Representative in Congress, or
elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military,
under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an
oath as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a
member of any State legislature,
or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the
Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or
rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But
Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such
(Section 3 of this amendment supplements paragraph 2, section 2, of Article
I; paragraph 3, section 3, of Article I; paragraph 2, section 1, of Article II;
and, paragraph 5, section 1, of Article II.)
Sec. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by
law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services
in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither
the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation
incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any
claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts,
obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
Sec. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate
legislation, the provisions of this article.
(Proposed February 27, 1869; adopted March 30, 1870)
Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be
denied or abridged by the United States, or by any State, on account of race,
color, or previous condition of servitude.
Sec. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
(This amendment supplements paragraph 1, section 2, of Article I.)
ARTICLE XVI (Proposed July 31, 1909; adopted February 25, 1913)
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from
whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and
without regard to any census or enumeration.
(This amendment modifies paragraph 3, section 2, of Article I, and
paragraph 4, section 9, of Article I.)
ARTICLE XVII (Proposed May 15, 1912; adopted May 81, 1913)
(1) The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from
each State, elected by the people thereof for six years,
and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have
the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the
(Paragraph 1 of this amendment modifies paragraph 1, section 3, of Article
I, and paragraph 1, section 4, of Article I.)
(2) When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate,
the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill
such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower
the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the
vacancies by election, as the legislature may direct.
(Paragraph 2 of this amendment modifies paragraph 2, section 3, of Article
(3) This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or
term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the
ARTICLE XVIII (Proposed December 19, 1917; adopted January 29, 1919)
Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the
manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the
importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and
all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is
Sec. 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent
power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Sec. 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified
as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States,
as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of submission
hereof to the States by the Congress.
ARTICLE XIX (Proposed June 6, 1919; adopted August 26, 1920)
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
(This amendment supplements paragraph 1, section 2, of Article I.)
On October 22, 1787, a little over a month after the Constitution was
adopted by the Convention at Philadelphia, the hard-headed and many-sided
Benjamin Franklin, when he was nearly 82 years of age, wrote a suggestion to a
friend in Europe, which is still worthy of consideration, as follows:
"I send you enclosed the proposed new Federal Constitution for these
States. I was engaged four months of the last summer in the Convention that
formed it. It is now sent by Congress to the several States for their
confirmation. If it succeeds, I do not see why you might not in Europe form a
Federal Union and one grand republic of all its different states and kingdoms;
by means of a like convention; for we had many interests to reconcile."
"Whatever may be the judgment pronounced on the competency of the
architects of the Constitution, or whatever may be the destiny of the edifice
prepared by them, I feel it a duty to express my profound and solemn
conviction, derived from my intimate opportunity of observing and appreciating
the views of the Convention collectively and individually, that there never was
an assembly of men, charged with a great and arduous trust, who were more pure
in their motives, or more exclusively or anxiously devoted to the object
committed to them." — James Madison.
"Hold on, my friends, to the Constitution of your country, and the
government established under it. Perform those duties which are present, plain
and positive. Respect the laws of your country, uphold our American
institutions as far as you are able, consult the chart and the compass: as if
our united constitutional American liberty were in some degree committed to
your charge, keep her, so far as it depends on you, clear of the breakers"
— Daniel Webster.
Francois Guizot, the French philosopher, historian, and prime minister,
once asked James Russell Lowell, noted author and poet, "How long do you think
the American Republic will endure?" Lowell replied, "So long as the ideas of
its founders continue to be dominant."
"The Federalists"---------------- Hamilton, Madison, Jay.
"The Constitution Explained" ------------- Harry Atwood.
"Formation of the Union of the American states" ------------- Superintendent
of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.
"The Constitution of the United States,
Its Sources and Application" -------------- Thomas J. Norton.
"History of the United States" ----------- McMaster.
Amendments. (See Constitution.) America:
Ideals ........................................................ 14, 22,
28-30, 71, 114-117
High standards of
American Bill of
Significance of elements
Progress of flag
Allocation of stars
Kinds of national flags
Method of display
Salutes to flag
Army — Regular
Articles of Confederation
........................................................ 12, 18
Greatest asset of America
Checks and balances
Responsibilities of .........................................1, 5, 14,
23, 31, 103-108
Civil War. (See Rights.)
Civilization, development of
Clark, George Rogers
C. M. T. C.
Communism ............................................. 66, 75-84, 93,
Abolition of family
Denial of personal rights
Equality of condition
Constitution......... 12, 13-14, 18, 42, 43, 44, 58, 69, 76, 77, 78-79,
93, 94, 94-96, 98, 111, 116, 127
13, 19, 68, 78, 110
Knowledge of, necessary
Superior to all other forms of government
Cooley, Judge Thomas N
Declaration of Independence.................... 43, 75, 77, 83, 94, 108,
Dicey, Prof. A.
Education. (See Illiteracy.)
Emerson, Ralph Waldo
Ericsson, Capt. John
Evarts, William M
Executive Department. (See Government.)
Frémont, Gen. John C.
Gorgas, Gen. William C.
............................................................. 88, 111
Comparative forms of. (See Representative government.)
Constitution of the United States. (See Constitution.)
Early forms of
................................................................2, 3, 30,
Hart, A. B.
House of Representatives
Immigration ................................................3, 10, 22,
24, 60, 100, 104
(See Revised Statutes.)
(See Declaration of Independence.)
An American institution
Protection to home and family
Respect for religion
Industry ..............................4, 19, 21, 51, 59, 60-64, 66, 68,
70, 71, 72
International relationships. (See State Department.)
L Labor. (See Industry.)
Law and order
Lewis and Clark expedition
Safeguards. (See Declaration of Independence )
Lincoln, Abraham ................................................... 14,
46, 77, 85, 88
Madison, James ...................... 12, 92, 93, 94, 113, 114, 115,
Military policy of the United States
Militia. (See National Guard.)
Morse, Samuel F. B.
N Page National defense. (See National Guard; Organized
National defense act
............................................................ 1, 87, 114
Norton, Thomas J.
22, 35, 116
Population of United States
..................................................... 22, 93
Powers of President of United States
Powers delegated to Congress
Powers reserved to State and people
Agency for peace
Preparation for leadership
Questionnaires......... 15, 24, 35, 66, 63, 72, 80, 89, 101, 108, 117,
Reed, Maj. Walter
32, 67, 68
Religion and national defense
3-4, 44, 99
5, 76, 100
.......................................................... 13, 19, 46
Sargent, John G.
Separation of church and State
Separation of powers
Socialism. (See Communism.)
.............................................................. 19, 35,
.............................................................42, 78, 94,
Swaney, Judge W. B.
Virginia: Bill of Rights
Statute of religious liberty
Vote. (See Suffrage.)
Farewell Address ........................................... 22, 40, 85,
97, 101, 106
Webster, Daniel ................................ 13, 32, 44, 75, 80,
100, 101, 148
Reply to Hayne
Whitman, Rev. Marcus
Winning of the West
........................................................... 46, 51, 60
Work. (See Winning of the West) ........................... 30,
57, 66, 71, 79
[A. G. 014.33 (4-28-28).] BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:
C. P. SUMMERALL,
Chief of Staff
The Adjutant General
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